Texas Administrative Code Title 19

Education: As effective August 6, 2010

Chapter 112

Subchapter A

§112.1: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Elementary

The provisions of §§112.2-112.7 of this subchapter shall be superseded by §§112.11-112.16 of this subchapter beginning with the 2010-2011 school year.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.1 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647; amended to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.2: Science, Kindergarten

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Kindergarten, science introduces the use of simple classroom and field investigations to help students develop the skills of asking questions, gathering information, communicating findings, and making informed decisions. Using their own senses and common tools such as a hand lens, students make observations and collect information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support their investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components of the natural world including rocks, soil, and water. Students observe the seasons and growth as examples of change. In addition, Kindergarten science includes the identification of organisms and objects and their parts. Students learn how to group living organisms and nonliving objects and explore the basic needs of living organisms.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student participates in classroom and field investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during classroom and field investigations; and

(B) learn how to use and conserve resources and materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in the field and the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) gather information using simple equipment and tools to extend the senses;

(D) construct reasonable explanations using information; and

(E) communicate findings about simple investigations.

(3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) make decisions using information;

(B) discuss and justify the merits of decisions; and

(C) explain a problem in his/her own words and propose a solution.

(4) Scientific processes. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to verify that organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects can be observed, described, and measured. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and use senses as tools of observation; and

(B) make observations using tools including hand lenses, balances, cups, bowls, and computers.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms, objects, and events have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) describe properties of objects and characteristics of organisms;

(B) observe and identify patterns including seasons, growth, and day and night and predict what happens next; and

(C) recognize and copy patterns seen in charts and graphs.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that systems have parts and are composed of organisms and objects. The student is expected to:

(A) sort organisms and objects into groups according to their parts and describe how the groups are formed;

(B) record observations about parts of plants including leaves, roots, stems, and flowers;

(C) record observations about parts of animals including wings, feet, heads, and tails;

(D) identify parts that, when separated from the whole, may result in the part or the whole not working, such as cars without wheels and plants without roots; and

(E) manipulate parts of objects such as toys, vehicles, or construction sets that, when put together, can do things they cannot do by themselves.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that many types of change occur. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, describe, and record changes in size, mass, color, position, quantity, time, temperature, sound, and movement;

(B) identify that heat causes change, such as ice melting or the sun warming the air and compare objects according to temperature;

(C) observe and record weather changes from day to day and over seasons; and

(D) observe and record stages in the life cycle of organisms in their natural environment.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows the difference between living organisms and nonliving objects. The student is expected to:

(A) identify a particular organism or object as living or nonliving; and

(B) group organisms and objects as living or nonliving.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. The student is expected to:

(A) identify basic needs of living organisms;

(B) give examples of how living organisms depend on each other; and

(C) identify ways that the Earth can provide resources for life.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes rocks, soil, and water. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe properties of rocks, soil and water; and

(B) give examples of ways that rocks, soil, and water are useful.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.2 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.3: Science, Grade 1

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 1, the study of science includes simple classroom and field investigations to help students develop the skills of asking questions, gathering information, making measurements using non-standard units, with tools such as a thermometer to extend their senses, constructing explanations, and drawing conclusions. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support their investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components of the natural world including rocks, soil, and natural resources. Students observe that heat from the sun or friction, is an example of something that causes change. In addition, students identify basic needs of living things, explore ways that living things depend on each other, and separate living organisms and nonliving things into groups. Students identify parts that can be put together with other parts to do new things.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts classroom and field investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during classroom and field investigations; and

(B) learn how to use and conserve resources and materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in the field and the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) gather information using simple equipment and tools to extend the senses;

(D) construct reasonable explanations and draw conclusions; and

(E) communicate explanations about investigations.

(3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) make decisions using information;

(B) discuss and justify the merits of decisions; and

(C) explain a problem in his/her own words and identify a task and solution related to the problem.

(4) Scientific processes. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to verify that organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects can be observed, described, and measured. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information using tools including hand lenses, clocks, computers, thermometers, and balances;

(B) record and compare collected information; and

(C) measure organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects, using non-standard units such as paper clips, hands, and pencils.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms, objects, and events have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) sort objects and events based on properties and patterns; and

(B) identify, predict, and create patterns including those seen in charts, graphs, and numbers.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that systems have parts and are composed of organisms and objects. The student is expected to:

(A) sort organisms and objects according to their parts and characteristics;

(B) observe and describe the parts of plants and animals;

(C) manipulate objects such as toys, vehicles, or construction sets so that the parts are separated from the whole which may result in the part or the whole not working; and

(D) identify parts that, when put together, can do things they cannot do by themselves, such as a working camera with film, a car moving with a motor, and an airplane flying with fuel.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that many types of change occur. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, measure, and record changes in size, mass, color, position, quantity, sound, and movement;

(B) identify and test ways that heat may cause change such as when ice melts;

(C) observe and record changes in weather from day to day and over seasons; and

(D) observe and record changes in the life cycle of organisms.

(8) Science concepts. The student distinguishes between living organisms and nonliving objects. The student is expected to:

(A) group living organisms and nonliving objects; and

(B) compare living organisms and nonliving objects.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of living organisms that allow their basic needs to be met; and

(B) compare and give examples of the ways living organisms depend on each other for their basic needs.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes rocks, soil, and water. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe a variety of natural sources of water including streams, lakes, and oceans;

(B) observe and describe differences in rocks and soil samples; and

(C) identify how rocks, soil, and water are used and how they can be recycled.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.3 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.4: Science, Grade 2

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 2, the study of science includes planning and conducting simple classroom and field investigations to help students develop the skills of making measurements using standard and non-standard units, using common tools such as rulers and clocks to collect information, classifying and sequencing objects and events, and identifying patterns. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support their investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components and processes of the natural world including the water cycle and the use of resources. They observe melting and evaporation, weathering, and the pushing and pulling of objects as examples of change. In addition, students distinguish between characteristics of living organisms and nonliving objects, compare lifelong needs of plants and animals, understand how living organisms depend on their environments, and identify functions of parts of plants and animals.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts classroom and field investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during classroom and field investigations; and

(B) learn how to use and conserve resources and dispose of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in the field and the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) compare results of investigations with what students and scientists know about the world;

(D) gather information using simple equipment and tools to extend the senses;

(E) construct reasonable explanations and draw conclusions using information and prior knowledge; and

(F) communicate explanations about investigations.

(3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) make decisions using information;

(B) discuss and justify the merits of decisions; and

(C) explain a problem in his/her own words and identify a task and solution related to the problem.

(4) Scientific processes. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to verify that organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects can be observed, described, and measured. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information using tools including rulers, meter sticks, measuring cups, clocks, hand lenses, computers, thermometers, and balances; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects, using standard and non-standard units.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms, objects, and events have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) classify and sequence organisms, objects, and events based on properties and patterns; and

(B) identify, predict, replicate, and create patterns including those seen in charts, graphs, and numbers.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that systems have parts and are composed of organisms and objects. The student is expected to:

(A) manipulate, predict, and identify parts that, when separated from the whole, may result in the part or the whole not working, such as flashlights without batteries and plants without leaves;

(B) manipulate, predict, and identify parts that, when put together, can do things they cannot do by themselves, such as a guitar and guitar strings;

(C) observe and record the functions of plant parts; and

(D) observe and record the functions of animal parts.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that many types of change occur. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, measure, record, analyze, predict, and illustrate changes in size, mass, temperature, color, position, quantity, sound, and movement;

(B) identify, predict, and test uses of heat to cause change such as melting and evaporation;

(C) demonstrate a change in the motion of an object by giving the object a push or a pull; and

(D) observe, measure, and record changes in weather, the night sky, and seasons.

(8) Science concepts. The student distinguishes between living organisms and nonliving objects. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of living organisms; and

(B) identify characteristics of nonliving objects.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the external characteristics of different kinds of plants and animals that allow their needs to be met; and

(B) compare and give examples of the ways living organisms depend on each other and on their environments.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes rocks, soil, water, and gases of the atmosphere. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and illustrate the water cycle; and

(B) identify uses of natural resources.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.4 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.5: Science, Grade 3

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 3, the study of science includes planning and implementing simple classroom and field investigations to develop the skills of collecting information using tools such as a microscope, making inferences, communicating conclusions, and making informed decisions. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify the importance of components of the natural world including rocks, soils, water, and atmospheric gases. They observe the direction and position of objects as they are pushed and pulled, and movement of the Earth's surface as examples of change caused by a force. Students investigate magnetism and gravity. In addition, students explore organisms' needs, habitats, and competition with other organisms within their ecosystem.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect information by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct simple graphs, tables, maps and charts to organize, examine and evaluate information.

(3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information, critical thinking, and scientific problem solving are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on information related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 3 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, cameras, safety goggles, sound recorders, clocks, computers, thermometers, hand lenses, meter sticks, rulers, balances, magnets, and compasses; and

(B) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows that systems exist in the world. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and identify simple systems such as a sprouted seed and a wooden toy car; and

(B) observe a simple system and describe the role of various parts such as a yo-yo and string.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that forces cause change. The student is expected to:

(A) measure and record changes in the position and direction of the motion of an object to which a force such as a push or pull has been applied; and

(B) identify that the surface of the Earth can be changed by forces such as earthquakes and glaciers.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) gather information including temperature, magnetism, hardness, and mass using appropriate tools to identify physical properties of matter; and

(B) identify matter as liquids, solids, and gases.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms need food, water, light, air, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which to live. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe the habitats of organisms within an ecosystem;

(B) observe and identify organisms with similar needs that compete with one another for resources such as oxygen, water, food, or space;

(C) describe environmental changes in which some organisms would thrive, become ill, or perish; and

(D) describe how living organisms modify their physical environment to meet their needs such as beavers building a dam or humans building a home.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that species have different adaptations that help them survive and reproduce in their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and identify characteristics among species that allow each to survive and reproduce; and

(B) analyze how adaptive characteristics help individuals within a species to survive and reproduce.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that many likenesses between offspring and parents are inherited from the parents. The student is expected to:

(A) identify some inherited traits of plants; and

(B) identify some inherited traits of animals.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the importance of earth materials including rocks, soil, water, and gases of the atmosphere in the local area and classify them as renewable, nonrenewable, or inexhaustible resources;

(B) identify and record properties of soils such as color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants;

(C) identify the planets in our solar system and their position in relation to the Sun; and

(D) describe the characteristics of the Sun.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.5 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.6: Science, Grade 4

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 4, the study of science includes planning and implementing field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools such as compasses to collect information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components and processes of the natural world including properties of soil, effects of the oceans on land, and the role of the sun as our major source of energy. In addition, students identify the physical properties of matter and observe the addition or reduction of heat as an example of what can cause changes in states of matter.

(3) Students learn the roles of living and nonliving components of simple systems and investigate differences between learned characteristics and inherited traits. They learn that adaptations of organisms that lived in the past may have increased some species' ability to survive.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect information by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on information related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 4 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, safety goggles, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, computers, hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, meter sticks, timing devices, balances, and compasses; and

(B) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows that complex systems may not work if some parts are removed. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the roles of some organisms in living systems such as plants in a schoolyard, and parts in nonliving systems such as a light bulb in a circuit; and

(B) predict and draw conclusions about what happens when part of a system is removed.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that change can create recognizable patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) identify patterns of change such as in weather, metamorphosis, and objects in the sky;

(B) illustrate that certain characteristics of an object can remain constant even when the object is rotated like a spinning top, translated like a skater moving in a straight line, or reflected on a smooth surface; and

(C) use reflections to verify that a natural object has symmetry.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record changes in the states of matter caused by the addition or reduction of heat; and

(B) conduct tests, compare data, and draw conclusions about physical properties of matter including states of matter, conduction, density, and buoyancy.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics that allow members within a species to survive and reproduce;

(B) compare adaptive characteristics of various species; and

(C) identify the kinds of species that lived in the past and compare them to existing species.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that many likenesses between offspring and parents are inherited or learned. The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish between inherited traits and learned characteristics; and

(B) identify and provide examples of inherited traits and learned characteristics.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that certain past events affect present and future events. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and observe effects of events that require time for changes to be noticeable including growth, erosion, dissolving, weathering, and flow; and

(B) draw conclusions about "what happened before" using fossils or charts and tables.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) test properties of soils including texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support life;

(B) summarize the effects of the oceans on land; and

(C) identify the Sun as the major source of energy for the Earth and understand its role in the growth of plants, in the creation of winds, and in the water cycle.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.6 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.7: Science, Grade 5

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 5, the study of science includes planning and implementing field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools such as nets and cameras to collect and record information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify structures and functions of Earth systems including the crust, mantle, and core and the effect of weathering on landforms. Students learn that growth, erosion, and dissolving are examples of how some past events have affected present events. Students learn about magnetism, physical states of matter, and conductivity as properties that are used to classify matter. In addition, students learn that light, heat, and electricity are all forms of energy.

(3) Students learn that adaptations can improve the survival of members of a species, and they explore an organism's niche within an ecosystem. Students continue the study of organisms by exploring a variety of traits that are inherited by offspring from their parents and study examples of learned characteristics.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect information by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on information related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 5 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, computers, hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, compasses, balances, hot plates, meter sticks, timing devices, magnets, collecting nets, and safety goggles; and

(B) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to:

(A) describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system; and

(B) describe some interactions that occur in a simple system.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that some change occurs in cycles. The student is expected to:

(A) identify events and describe changes that occur on a regular basis such as in daily, weekly, lunar, and seasonal cycles;

(B) identify the significance of the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles; and

(C) describe and compare life cycles of plants and animals.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) classify matter based on its physical properties including magnetism, physical state, and the ability to conduct or insulate heat, electricity, and sound;

(B) demonstrate that some mixtures maintain the physical properties of their ingredients;

(C) identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving sugar in water; and

(D) observe and measure characteristic properties of substances that remain constant such as boiling points and melting points.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among forms of energy including light, heat, electrical, and solar energy;

(B) identify and demonstrate everyday examples of how light is reflected, such as from tinted windows, and refracted, such as in cameras, telescopes, and eyeglasses;

(C) demonstrate that electricity can flow in a circuit and can produce heat, light, sound, and magnetic effects; and

(D) verify that vibrating an object can produce sound.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the adaptive characteristics of species that improve their ability to survive and reproduce in an ecosystem;

(B) analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem; and

(C) predict some adaptive characteristics required for survival and reproduction by an organism in an ecosystem.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that likenesses between offspring and parents can be inherited or learned. The student is expected to:

(A) identify traits that are inherited from parent to offspring in plants and animals; and

(B) give examples of learned characteristics that result from the influence of the environment.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that certain past events affect present and future events. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and observe actions that require time for changes to be measurable, including growth, erosion, dissolving, weathering, and flow;

(B) draw conclusions about "what happened before" using data such as from tree-growth rings and sedimentary rock sequences; and

(C) identify past events that led to the formation of the Earth's renewable, non-renewable, and inexhaustible resources.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret how land forms are the result of a combination of constructive and destructive forces such as deposition of sediment and weathering;

(B) describe processes responsible for the formation of coal, oil, gas, and minerals;

(C) identify the physical characteristics of the Earth and compare them to the physical characteristics of the moon; and

(D) identify gravity as the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and the moon in orbit around the Earth.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.7 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.10: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Elementary, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

The provisions of §§112.11-112.16 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2010-2011 school year and at that time shall supersede §§112.2-112.7 of this subchapter.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.10 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.11: Science, Kindergarten, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 80% of instructional time.

(4) In Kindergarten, students observe and describe the natural world using their five senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms.

(A) A central theme throughout the study of scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment is active engagement in asking questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations and descriptive investigations.

(B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size and mass, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, heat, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored.

(C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. Other patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.

(D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate the life cycle of plants and identify likenesses between parents and offspring.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles, washing hands, and using materials appropriately;

(B) discuss the importance of safe practices to keep self and others safe and healthy; and

(C) demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reusing or recycling paper, plastic, and metal.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations such as ways objects move;

(C) collect data and make observations using simple equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, and non-standard measurement tools;

(D) record and organize data and observations using pictures, numbers, and words; and

(E) communicate observations with others about simple descriptive investigations.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem such as the impact of littering on the playground and propose a solution in his/her own words;

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns in nature such as the shapes of leaves; and

(C) explore that scientists investigate different things in the natural world and use tools to help in their investigations.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices, including clocks and timers; non-standard measuring items such as paper clips and clothespins; weather instruments such as demonstration thermometers and wind socks; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) use senses as a tool of observation to identify properties and patterns of organisms, objects, and events in the environment.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that objects have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record properties of objects, including relative size and mass, such as bigger or smaller and heavier or lighter, shape, color, and texture; and

(B) observe, record, and discuss how materials can be changed by heating or cooling.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy, force, and motion are related and are a part of their everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) use the five senses to explore different forms of energy such as light, heat, and sound;

(B) explore interactions between magnets and various materials;

(C) observe and describe the location of an object in relation to another such as above, below, behind, in front of, and beside; and

(D) observe and describe the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zigzag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, describe, compare, and sort rocks by size, shape, color, and texture;

(B) observe and describe physical properties of natural sources of water, including color and clarity; and

(C) give examples of ways rocks, soil, and water are useful.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe weather changes from day to day and over seasons;

(B) identify events that have repeating patterns, including seasons of the year and day and night; and

(C) observe, describe, and illustrate objects in the sky such as the clouds, Moon, and stars, including the Sun.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that plants and animals have basic needs and depend on the living and nonliving things around them for survival. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between living and nonliving things based upon whether they have basic needs and produce offspring; and

(B) examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs such as food, water, and shelter for animals and air, water, nutrients, sunlight, and space for plants.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics such as color, size, body covering, or leaf shape;

(B) identify parts of plants such as roots, stem, and leaves and parts of animals such as head, eyes, and limbs;

(C) identify ways that young plants resemble the parent plant; and

(D) observe changes that are part of a simple life cycle of a plant: seed, seedling, plant, flower, and fruit.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.11 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.12: Science, Grade 1, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 80% of instructional time.

(4) In Grade 1, students observe and describe the natural world using their five senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand the world around them in the context of scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms.

(A) A central theme in first grade science is active engagement in asking questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools in order to explain scientific concepts and processes like scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations and descriptive investigations.

(B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size and mass, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, heat, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored.

(C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. In addition, patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.

(D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate life cycles of animals and identify likenesses between parents and offspring.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles, washing hands, and using materials appropriately;

(B) recognize the importance of safe practices to keep self and others safe and healthy; and

(C) identify and learn how to use natural resources and materials, including conservation and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metals.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations such as ways objects move;

(C) collect data and make observations using simple equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, and non-standard measurement tools;

(D) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words; and

(E) communicate observations and provide reasons for explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem such as finding a home for a classroom pet and propose a solution in his/her own words;

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns; and

(C) describe what scientists do.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, primary balances, cups, bowls, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles; timing devices, including clocks and timers; non-standard measuring items such as paper clips and clothespins; weather instruments such as classroom demonstration thermometers and wind socks; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as aquariums and terrariums; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects using non-standard units.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that objects have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) classify objects by observable properties of the materials from which they are made such as larger and smaller, heavier and lighter, shape, color, and texture; and

(B) predict and identify changes in materials caused by heating and cooling such as ice melting, water freezing, and water evaporating.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that force, motion, and energy are related and are a part of everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and discuss how different forms of energy such as light, heat, and sound are important to everyday life;

(B) predict and describe how a magnet can be used to push or pull an object;

(C) describe the change in the location of an object such as closer to, nearer to, and farther from; and

(D) demonstrate and record the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zig zag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes rocks, soil, and water that can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, compare, describe, and sort components of soil by size, texture, and color;

(B) identify and describe a variety of natural sources of water, including streams, lakes, and oceans; and

(C) gather evidence of how rocks, soil, and water help to make useful products.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes the air around us and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) record weather information, including relative temperature, such as hot or cold, clear or cloudy, calm or windy, and rainy or icy;

(B) observe and record changes in the appearance of objects in the sky such as clouds, the Moon, and stars, including the Sun;

(C) identify characteristics of the seasons of the year and day and night; and

(D) demonstrate that air is all around us and observe that wind is moving air.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that the living environment is composed of relationships between organisms and the life cycles that occur. The student is expected to:

(A) sort and classify living and nonliving things based upon whether or not they have basic needs and produce offspring;

(B) analyze and record examples of interdependence found in various situations such as terrariums and aquariums or pet and caregiver; and

(C) gather evidence of interdependence among living organisms such as energy transfer through food chains and animals using plants for shelter.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats;

(B) identify and compare the parts of plants;

(C) compare ways that young animals resemble their parents; and

(D) observe and record life cycles of animals such as a chicken, frog, or fish.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.12 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.13: Science, Grade 2, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 60% of instructional time.

(4) In Grade 2, careful observation and investigation are used to learn about the natural world and reveal patterns, changes, and cycles. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by using observation and investigations and that the information gathered in these may change as new observations are made. As students participate in investigation, they develop the skills necessary to do science as well as develop new science concepts.

(A) Within the physical environment, students expand their understanding of the properties of objects such as shape, mass, temperature, and flexibility then use those properties to compare, classify, and then combine the objects to do something that they could not do before. Students manipulate objects to demonstrate a change in motion and position.

(B) Within the natural environment, students will observe the properties of earth materials as well as predictable patterns that occur on Earth and in the sky. The students understand that those patterns are used to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation.

(C) Within the living environment, students explore patterns, systems, and cycles by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all the components within their habitat. Students examine how living organisms depend on each other and on their environment.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles, washing hands, and using materials appropriately;

(B) describe the importance of safe practices; and

(C) identify and demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metal.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events during observations and investigations;

(B) plan and conduct descriptive investigations such as how organisms grow;

(C) collect data from observations using simple equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, thermometers, and non-standard measurement tools;

(D) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words;

(E) communicate observations and justify explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations; and

(F) compare results of investigations with what students and scientists know about the world.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem in his/her own words and propose a task and solution for the problem such as lack of water in a habitat;

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns; and

(C) identify what a scientist is and explore what different scientists do.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, rulers, primary balances, plastic beakers, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; weather instruments such as thermometers, wind vanes, and rain gauges; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects using non-standard units that approximate metric units.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical properties and those properties determine how it is described, classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) classify matter by physical properties, including shape, relative mass, relative temperature, texture, flexibility, and whether material is a solid or liquid;

(B) compare changes in materials caused by heating and cooling;

(C) demonstrate that things can be done to materials to change their physical properties such as cutting, folding, sanding, and melting; and

(D) combine materials that when put together can do things that they cannot do by themselves such as building a tower or a bridge and justify the selection of those materials based on their physical properties.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate the effects on an object by increasing or decreasing amounts of light, heat, and sound energy such as how the color of an object appears different in dimmer light or how heat melts butter;

(B) observe and identify how magnets are used in everyday life;

(C) trace the changes in the position of an object over time such as a cup rolling on the floor and a car rolling down a ramp; and

(D) compare patterns of movement of objects such as sliding, rolling, and spinning.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe rocks by size, texture, and color;

(B) identify and compare the properties of natural sources of freshwater and saltwater; and

(C) distinguish between natural and manmade resources.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, record, and graph weather information, including temperature, wind conditions, precipitation, and cloud coverage, in order to identify patterns in the data;

(B) identify the importance of weather and seasonal information to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation;

(C) explore the processes in the water cycle, including evaporation, condensation, and precipitation, as connected to weather conditions; and

(D) observe, describe, and record patterns of objects in the sky, including the appearance of the Moon.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs that must be met for them to survive within their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the basic needs of plants and animals;

(B) identify factors in the environment, including temperature and precipitation, that affect growth and behavior such as migration, hibernation, and dormancy of living things; and

(C) compare and give examples of the ways living organisms depend on each other and on their environments such as food chains within a garden, park, beach, lake, and wooded area.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics and behaviors of animals help them meet their basic needs such as fins help fish move and balance in the water;

(B) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics of plants help them meet their basic needs such as stems carry water throughout the plant; and

(C) investigate and record some of the unique stages that insects undergo during their life cycle.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.13 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.14: Science, Grade 3, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information while addressing the content and vocabulary in physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 60% of instructional time.

(4) In Grade 3, students learn that the study of science uses appropriate tools and safe practices in planning and implementing investigations, asking and answering questions, collecting data by observing and measuring, and by using models to support scientific inquiry about the natural world.

(A) Students recognize that patterns, relationships, and cycles exist in matter. Students will investigate the physical properties of matter and will learn that changes occur. They explore mixtures and investigate light, sound, and heat/thermal energy in everyday life. Students manipulate objects by pushing and pulling to demonstrate changes in motion and position.

(B) Students investigate how the surface of Earth changes and provides resources that humans use. As students explore objects in the sky, they describe how relationships affect patterns and cycles on Earth. Students will construct models to demonstrate Sun, Earth, and Moon system relationships and will describe the Sun's role in the water cycle.

(C) Students explore patterns, systems, and cycles within environments by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all components of the natural environment. Students examine how the environment plays a key role in survival. Students know that when changes in the environment occur organisms may thrive, become ill, or perish.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following school and home safety procedures and environmentally appropriate practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including observing a schoolyard habitat; and

(B) make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources by recycling or reusing materials such as paper, aluminum cans, and plastics.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking and answering questions, making inferences, and selecting and using equipment or technology needed, to solve a specific problem in the natural world;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring using the metric system and recognize differences between observed and measured data;

(C) construct maps, graphic organizers, simple tables, charts, and bar graphs using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate measured data;

(D) analyze and interpret patterns in data to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from investigations;

(E) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results; and

(F) communicate valid conclusions supported by data in writing, by drawing pictures, and through verbal discussion.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information, critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) draw inferences and evaluate accuracy of product claims found in advertisements and labels such as for toys and food;

(C) represent the natural world using models such as volcanoes or Sun, Earth, and Moon system and identify their limitations, including size, properties, and materials; and

(D) connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, wind vanes, rain gauges, pan balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, spring scales, hot plates, meter sticks, compasses, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, sound recorders, and Sun, Earth, and Moon system models; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) use safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles and gloves.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, test, and record physical properties of matter, including temperature, mass, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float;

(B) describe and classify samples of matter as solids, liquids, and gases and demonstrate that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container;

(C) predict, observe, and record changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling; and

(D) explore and recognize that a mixture is created when two materials are combined such as gravel and sand and metal and plastic paper clips.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and that energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:

(A) explore different forms of energy, including mechanical, light, sound, and heat/thermal in everyday life;

(B) demonstrate and observe how position and motion can be changed by pushing and pulling objects to show work being done such as swings, balls, pulleys, and wagons; and

(C) observe forces such as magnetism and gravity acting on objects.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that Earth consists of natural resources and its surface is constantly changing. The student is expected to:

(A) explore and record how soils are formed by weathering of rock and the decomposition of plant and animal remains;

(B) investigate rapid changes in Earth's surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides;

(C) identify and compare different landforms, including mountains, hills, valleys, and plains; and

(D) explore the characteristics of natural resources that make them useful in products and materials such as clothing and furniture and how resources may be conserved.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, measure, record, and compare day-to-day weather changes in different locations at the same time that include air temperature, wind direction, and precipitation;

(B) describe and illustrate the Sun as a star composed of gases that provides light and heat energy for the water cycle;

(C) construct models that demonstrate the relationship of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, including orbits and positions; and

(D) identify the planets in Earth's solar system and their position in relation to the Sun.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms have characteristics that help them survive and can describe patterns, cycles, systems, and relationships within the environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe the physical characteristics of environments and how they support populations and communities within an ecosystem;

(B) identify and describe the flow of energy in a food chain and predict how changes in a food chain affect the ecosystem such as removal of frogs from a pond or bees from a field; and

(C) describe environmental changes such as floods and droughts where some organisms thrive and others perish or move to new locations.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) explore how structures and functions of plants and animals allow them to survive in a particular environment;

(B) explore that some characteristics of organisms are inherited such as the number of limbs on an animal or flower color and recognize that some behaviors are learned in response to living in a certain environment such as animals using tools to get food; and

(C) investigate and compare how animals and plants undergo a series of orderly changes in their diverse life cycles such as tomato plants, frogs, and lady bugs.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.14 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.15: Science, Grade 4, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 50% of instructional time.

(4) In Grade 4, investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(A) Within the natural environment, students know that earth materials have properties that are constantly changing due to Earth's forces. The students learn that the natural world consists of resources, including renewable and nonrenewable, and their responsibility to conserve our natural resources for future generations. They will also explore Sun, Earth, and Moon relationships. The students will recognize that our major source of energy is the Sun.

(B) Within the living environment, students know and understand that living organisms within an ecosystem interact with one another and with their environment. The students will recognize that plants and animals have basic needs, and they are met through a flow of energy known as food webs. Students will explore how all living organisms go through a life cycle and that adaptations enable organisms to survive in their ecosystem.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations, following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations; and

(B) make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources and reusing and recycling of materials such as paper, aluminum, glass, cans, and plastic.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking well-defined questions, making inferences, and selecting and using appropriate equipment or technology to answer his/her questions;

(B) collect and record data by observing and measuring, using the metric system, and using descriptive words and numerals such as labeled drawings, writing, and concept maps;

(C) construct simple tables, charts, bar graphs, and maps using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate data;

(D) analyze data and interpret patterns to construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured;

(E) perform repeated investigations to increase the reliability of results; and

(F) communicate valid, oral, and written results supported by data.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) draw inferences and evaluate accuracy of services and product claims found in advertisements and labels such as for toys, food, and sunscreen;

(C) represent the natural world using models such as rivers, stream tables, or fossils and identify their limitations, including accuracy and size; and

(D) connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools, materials, equipment, and models to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, mirrors, spring scales, pan balances, triple beam balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, compasses, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) use safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles and gloves.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, compare, and contrast physical properties of matter, including size, mass, volume, states (solid, liquid, gas), temperature, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float;

(B) predict the changes caused by heating and cooling such as ice becoming liquid water and condensation forming on the outside of a glass of ice water; and

(C) compare and contrast a variety of mixtures and solutions such as rocks in sand, sand in water, or sugar in water.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy exists in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among forms of energy, including mechanical, sound, electrical, light, and heat/thermal;

(B) differentiate between conductors and insulators;

(C) demonstrate that electricity travels in a closed path, creating an electrical circuit, and explore an electromagnetic field; and

(D) design an experiment to test the effect of force on an object such as a push or a pull, gravity, friction, or magnetism.

(7) Earth and space. The students know that Earth consists of useful resources and its surface is constantly changing. The student is expected to:

(A) examine properties of soils, including color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants;

(B) observe and identify slow changes to Earth's surface caused by weathering, erosion, and deposition from water, wind, and ice; and

(C) identify and classify Earth's renewable resources, including air, plants, water, and animals; and nonrenewable resources, including coal, oil, and natural gas; and the importance of conservation.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) measure and record changes in weather and make predictions using weather maps, weather symbols, and a map key;

(B) describe and illustrate the continuous movement of water above and on the surface of Earth through the water cycle and explain the role of the Sun as a major source of energy in this process; and

(C) collect and analyze data to identify sequences and predict patterns of change in shadows, tides, seasons, and the observable appearance of the Moon over time.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows and understands that living organisms within an ecosystem interact with one another and with their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate that most producers need sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make their own food, while consumers are dependent on other organisms for food; and

(B) describe the flow of energy through food webs, beginning with the Sun, and predict how changes in the ecosystem affect the food web such as a fire in a forest.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) explore how adaptations enable organisms to survive in their environment such as comparing birds' beaks and leaves on plants;

(B) demonstrate that some likenesses between parents and offspring are inherited, passed from generation to generation such as eye color in humans or shapes of leaves in plants. Other likenesses are learned such as table manners or reading a book and seals balancing balls on their noses; and

(C) explore, illustrate, and compare life cycles in living organisms such as butterflies, beetles, radishes, or lima beans.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.15 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.16: Science, Grade 5, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 50% of instructional time.

(4) In Grade 5, investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(A) Within the physical environment, students learn about the physical properties of matter, including magnetism, physical states of matter, relative density, solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate electrical and heat energy. Students explore the uses of light, thermal, electrical, and sound energies.

(B) Within the natural environment, students learn how changes occur on Earth's surface and that predictable patterns occur in the sky. Students learn that the natural world consists of resources, including nonrenewable, renewable, and alternative energy sources.

(C) Within the living environment, students learn that structure and function of organisms can improve the survival of members of a species. Students learn to differentiate between inherited traits and learned behaviors. Students learn that life cycles occur in animals and plants and that the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle occurs naturally to support the living environment.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations; and

(B) make informed choices in the conservation, disposal, and recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) describe, plan, and implement simple experimental investigations testing one variable;

(B) ask well-defined questions, formulate testable hypotheses, and select and use appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect information by detailed observations and accurate measuring;

(D) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct (observable) and indirect (inferred) evidence;

(E) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results;

(F) communicate valid conclusions in both written and verbal forms; and

(G) construct appropriate simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using technology, including computers, to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) evaluate the accuracy of the information related to promotional materials for products and services such as nutritional labels;

(C) draw or develop a model that represents how something works or looks that cannot be seen such as how a soda dispensing machine works; and

(D) connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, prisms, mirrors, pan balances, triple beam balances, spring scales, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; and materials to support observations of habitats or organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) use safety equipment, including safety goggles and gloves.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) classify matter based on physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy;

(B) identify the boiling and freezing/melting points of water on the Celsius scale;

(C) demonstrate that some mixtures maintain physical properties of their ingredients such as iron filings and sand; and

(D) identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving salt in water or adding lemon juice to water.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) explore the uses of energy, including mechanical, light, thermal, electrical, and sound energy;

(B) demonstrate that the flow of electricity in circuits requires a complete path through which an electric current can pass and can produce light, heat, and sound;

(C) demonstrate that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels through one medium to another and demonstrate that light can be reflected such as the use of mirrors or other shiny surfaces and refracted such as the appearance of an object when observed through water; and

(D) design an experiment that tests the effect of force on an object.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows Earth's surface is constantly changing and consists of useful resources. The student is expected to:

(A) explore the processes that led to the formation of sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels;

(B) recognize how landforms such as deltas, canyons, and sand dunes are the result of changes to Earth's surface by wind, water, and ice;

(C) identify alternative energy resources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biofuels; and

(D) identify fossils as evidence of past living organisms and the nature of the environments at the time using models.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between weather and climate;

(B) explain how the Sun and the ocean interact in the water cycle;

(C) demonstrate that Earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours causing the day/night cycle and the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky; and

(D) identify and compare the physical characteristics of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that there are relationships, systems, and cycles within environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe the way organisms live and survive in their ecosystem by interacting with the living and non-living elements;

(B) describe how the flow of energy derived from the Sun, used by producers to create their own food, is transferred through a food chain and food web to consumers and decomposers;

(C) predict the effects of changes in ecosystems caused by living organisms, including humans, such as the overpopulation of grazers or the building of highways; and

(D) identify the significance of the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle to the survival of plants and animals.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the structures and functions of different species that help them live and survive such as hooves on prairie animals or webbed feet in aquatic animals;

(B) differentiate between inherited traits of plants and animals such as spines on a cactus or shape of a beak and learned behaviors such as an animal learning tricks or a child riding a bicycle; and

(C) describe the differences between complete and incomplete metamorphosis of insects.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.16 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

Subchapter B

§112.17: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Middle School, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

The provisions of §§112.18-112.20 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2010-2011 school year and at that time shall supersede §§112.22-112.24 of this subchapter.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.17 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.18: Science, Grade 6, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Science, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(2) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(3) Grade 6 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on physical science. National standards in science are organized as multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale.

(4) The strands for Grade 6 include:

(A) Scientific investigations and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy.

(i) Matter can be classified as elements, compounds, or mixtures. Students have already had experience with mixtures in Grade 5, so Grade 6 will concentrate on developing an understanding of elements and compounds. It is important that students learn the differences between elements and compounds based on observations, description of physical properties, and chemical reactions. Elements are represented by chemical symbols, while compounds are represented by chemical formulas. Subsequent grades will learn about the differences at the molecular and atomic level.

(ii) Elements are classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids based on their physical properties. The elements are divided into three groups on the Periodic Table. Each different substance usually has a different density, so density can be used as an identifying property. Therefore, calculating density aids classification of substances.

(iii) Energy resources are available on a renewable, nonrenewable, or indefinite basis. Understanding the origins and uses of these resources enables informed decision making. Students should consider the ethical/social issues surrounding Earth's natural energy resources, while looking at the advantages and disadvantages of their long-term uses.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Energy occurs in two types, potential and kinetic, and can take several forms. Thermal energy can be transferred by conduction, convection, or radiation. It can also be changed from one form to another. Students will investigate the relationship between force and motion using a variety of means, including calculations and measurements.

(D) Earth and space. The focus of this strand is on introducing Earth's processes. Students should develop an understanding of Earth as part of our solar system. The topics include organization of our solar system, the role of gravity, and space exploration.

(E) Organisms and environments. Students will gain an understanding of the broadest taxonomic classifications of organisms and how characteristics determine their classification. The other major topics developed in this strand include the interdependence between organisms and their environments and the levels of organization within an ecosystem.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as a model of Earth's layers;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including journals/notebooks, beakers, Petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, hot plates, test tubes, triple beam balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, timing devices, and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows the differences between elements and compounds. The student is expected to:

(A) know that an element is a pure substance represented by chemical symbols;

(B) recognize that a limited number of the many known elements comprise the largest portion of solid Earth, living matter, oceans, and the atmosphere;

(C) differentiate between elements and compounds on the most basic level; and

(D) identify the formation of a new substance by using the evidence of a possible chemical change such as production of a gas, change in temperature, production of a precipitate, or color change.

(6) Matter and energy. The student knows matter has physical properties that can be used for classification. The student is expected to:

(A) compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using physical properties such as luster, conductivity, or malleability;

(B) calculate density to identify an unknown substance; and

(C) test the physical properties of minerals, including hardness, color, luster, and streak.

(7) Matter and energy. The student knows that some of Earth's energy resources are available on a nearly perpetual basis, while others can be renewed over a relatively short period of time. Some energy resources, once depleted, are essentially nonrenewable. The student is expected to:

(A) research and debate the advantages and disadvantages of using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar resources; and

(B) design a logical plan to manage energy resources in the home, school, or community.

(8) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows force and motion are related to potential and kinetic energy. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy;

(B) identify and describe the changes in position, direction, and speed of an object when acted upon by unbalanced forces;

(C) calculate average speed using distance and time measurements;

(D) measure and graph changes in motion; and

(E) investigate how inclined planes and pulleys can be used to change the amount of force to move an object.

(9) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that the Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it just changes form. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate methods of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation;

(B) verify through investigations that thermal energy moves in a predictable pattern from warmer to cooler until all the substances attain the same temperature such as an ice cube melting; and

(C) demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in a flashlight battery changes from chemical energy to electrical energy to light energy.

(10) Earth and space. The student understands the structure of Earth, the rock cycle, and plate tectonics. The student is expected to:

(A) build a model to illustrate the structural layers of Earth, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, asthenosphere, and lithosphere;

(B) classify rocks as metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary by the processes of their formation;

(C) identify the major tectonic plates, including Eurasian, African, Indo-Australian, Pacific, North American, and South American; and

(D) describe how plate tectonics causes major geological events such as ocean basins, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building.

(11) Earth and space. The student understands the organization of our solar system and the relationships among the various bodies that comprise it. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the physical properties, locations, and movements of the Sun, planets, Galilean moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets;

(B) understand that gravity is the force that governs the motion of our solar system; and

(C) describe the history and future of space exploration, including the types of equipment and transportation needed for space travel.

(12) Organisms and environments. The student knows all organisms are classified into Domains and Kingdoms. Organisms within these taxonomic groups share similar characteristics which allow them to interact with the living and nonliving parts of their ecosystem. The student is expected to:

(A) understand that all organisms are composed of one or more cells;

(B) recognize that the presence of a nucleus determines whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic;

(C) recognize that the broadest taxonomic classification of living organisms is divided into currently recognized Domains;

(D) identify the basic characteristics of organisms, including prokaryotic or eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular, autotrophic or heterotrophic, and mode of reproduction, that further classify them in the currently recognized Kingdoms;

(E) describe biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem in which organisms interact; and

(F) diagram the levels of organization within an ecosystem, including organism, population, community, and ecosystem.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.18 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.19: Science, Grade 7, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(2) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(3) Grade 7 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on organisms and the environment. National standards in science are organized as a multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale.

(4) The strands for Grade 7 include:

(A) Scientific investigation and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy. Matter and energy are conserved throughout living systems. Radiant energy from the Sun drives much of the flow of energy throughout living systems due to the process of photosynthesis in organisms described as producers. Most consumers then depend on producers to meet their energy needs. Decomposers play an important role in recycling matter. Organic compounds are composed of carbon and other elements that are recycled due to chemical changes that rearrange the elements for the particular needs of that living system. Large molecules such as carbohydrates are composed of chains of smaller units such as sugars, similar to a train being composed of multiple box cars. Subsequent grade levels will learn about the differences at the molecular and atomic level.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Force, motion, and energy are observed in living systems and the environment in several ways. Interactions between muscular and skeletal systems allow the body to apply forces and transform energy both internally and externally. Force and motion can also describe the direction and growth of seedlings, turgor pressure, and geotropism. Catastrophic events of weather systems such as hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes can shape and restructure the environment through the force and motion evident in them. Weathering, erosion, and deposition occur in environments due to the forces of gravity, wind, ice, and water.

(D) Earth and space. Earth and space phenomena can be observed in a variety of settings. Both natural events and human activities can impact Earth systems. There are characteristics of Earth and relationships to objects in our solar system that allow life to exist.

(E) Organisms and environments.

(i) Students will understand the relationship between living organisms and their environment. Different environments support different living organisms that are adapted to that region of Earth. Organisms are living systems that maintain a steady state with that environment and whose balance may be disrupted by internal and external stimuli. External stimuli include human activity or the environment. Successful organisms can reestablish a balance through different processes such as a feedback mechanism. Ecological succession can be seen on a broad or small scale.

(ii) Students learn that all organisms obtain energy, get rid of wastes, grow, and reproduce. During both sexual and asexual reproduction, traits are passed onto the next generation. These traits are contained in genetic material that is found on genes within a chromosome from the parent. Changes in traits sometimes occur in a population over many generations. One of the ways a change can occur is through the process of natural selection. Students extend their understanding of structures in living systems from a previous focus on external structures to an understanding of internal structures and functions within living things.

(iii) All living organisms are made up of smaller units called cells. All cells use energy, get rid of wastes, and contain genetic material. Students will compare plant and animal cells and understand the internal structures within them that allow them to obtain energy, get rid of wastes, grow, and reproduce in different ways. Cells can organize into tissues, tissues into organs, and organs into organ systems. Students will learn the major functions of human body systems such as the ability of the integumentary system to protect against infection, injury, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation; regulate body temperature; and remove waste.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of the instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as human body systems and plant and animal cells;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Science investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including life science models, hand lens, stereoscopes, microscopes, beakers, Petri dishes, microscope slides, graduated cylinders, test tubes, meter sticks, metric rulers, metric tape measures, timing devices, hot plates, balances, thermometers, calculators, water test kits, computers, temperature and pH probes, collecting nets, insect traps, globes, digital cameras, journals/notebooks, and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize that radiant energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis;

(B) demonstrate and explain the cycling of matter within living systems such as in the decay of biomass in a compost bin; and

(C) diagram the flow of energy through living systems, including food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.

(6) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical and chemical properties and can undergo physical and chemical changes. The student is expected to:

(A) identify that organic compounds contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, or sulfur;

(B) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter in the digestive system; and

(C) recognize how large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules such as carbohydrates can be broken down into sugars.

(7) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that there is a relationship among force, motion, and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) contrast situations where work is done with different amounts of force to situations where no work is done such as moving a box with a ramp and without a ramp, or standing still;

(B) illustrate the transformation of energy within an organism such as the transfer from chemical energy to heat and thermal energy in digestion; and

(C) demonstrate and illustrate forces that affect motion in everyday life such as emergence of seedlings, turgor pressure, and geotropism.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that natural events and human activity can impact Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) predict and describe how different types of catastrophic events impact ecosystems such as floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes;

(B) analyze the effects of weathering, erosion, and deposition on the environment in ecoregions of Texas; and

(C) model the effects of human activity on groundwater and surface water in a watershed.

(9) Earth and space. The student knows components of our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the characteristics of objects in our solar system that allow life to exist such as the proximity of the Sun, presence of water, and composition of the atmosphere; and

(B) identify the accommodations, considering the characteristics of our solar system, that enabled manned space exploration.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that there is a relationship between organisms and the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe how different environments, including microhabitats in schoolyards and biomes, support different varieties of organisms;

(B) describe how biodiversity contributes to the sustainability of an ecosystem; and

(C) observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds.

(11) Organisms and environments. The student knows that populations and species demonstrate variation and inherit many of their unique traits through gradual processes over many generations. The student is expected to:

(A) examine organisms or their structures such as insects or leaves and use dichotomous keys for identification;

(B) explain variation within a population or species by comparing external features, behaviors, or physiology of organisms that enhance their survival such as migration, hibernation, or storage of food in a bulb; and

(C) identify some changes in genetic traits that have occurred over several generations through natural selection and selective breeding such as the Galapagos Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) or domestic animals.

(12) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and explain how internal structures of organisms have adaptations that allow specific functions such as gills in fish, hollow bones in birds, or xylem in plants;

(B) identify the main functions of the systems of the human organism, including the circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, digestive, excretory, reproductive, integumentary, nervous, and endocrine systems;

(C) recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms;

(D) differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole;

(E) compare the functions of a cell to the functions of organisms such as waste removal; and

(F) recognize that according to cell theory all organisms are composed of cells and cells carry on similar functions such as extracting energy from food to sustain life.

(13) Organisms and environments. The student knows that a living organism must be able to maintain balance in stable internal conditions in response to external and internal stimuli. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how organisms respond to external stimuli found in the environment such as phototropism and fight or flight; and

(B) describe and relate responses in organisms that may result from internal stimuli such as wilting in plants and fever or vomiting in animals that allow them to maintain balance.

(14) Organisms and environments. The student knows that reproduction is a characteristic of living organisms and that the instructions for traits are governed in the genetic material. The student is expected to:

(A) define heredity as the passage of genetic instructions from one generation to the next generation;

(B) compare the results of uniform or diverse offspring from sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction; and

(C) recognize that inherited traits of individuals are governed in the genetic material found in the genes within chromosomes in the nucleus.

§112.20: Science, Grade 8, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(2) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(3) Grade 8 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on earth and space science. National standards in science are organized as multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale.

(4) The strands for Grade 8 include:

(A) Scientific investigation and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy. Students recognize that matter is composed of atoms. Students examine information on the Periodic Table to recognize that elements are grouped into families. In addition, students understand the basic concept of conservation of mass. Lab activities will allow students to demonstrate evidence of chemical reactions. They will use chemical formulas and balanced equations to show chemical reactions and the formation of new substances.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Students experiment with the relationship between forces and motion through the study of Newton's three laws. Students learn how these forces relate to geologic processes and astronomical phenomena. In addition, students recognize that these laws are evident in everyday objects and activities. Mathematics is used to calculate speed using distance and time measurements.

(D) Earth and space. Students identify the role of natural events in altering Earth systems. Cycles within Sun, Earth, and Moon systems are studied as students learn about seasons, tides, and lunar phases. Students learn that stars and galaxies are part of the universe and that distances in space are measured by using light waves. In addition, students use data to research scientific theories of the origin of the universe. Students will illustrate how Earth features change over time by plate tectonics. They will interpret land and erosional features on topographic maps. Students learn how interactions in solar, weather, and ocean systems create changes in weather patterns and climate.

(E) Organisms and environments. In studies of living systems, students explore the interdependence between these systems. Interactions between organisms in ecosystems, including producer/consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships, are investigated in aquatic and terrestrial systems. Students describe how biotic and abiotic factors affect the number of organisms and populations present in an ecosystem. In addition, students explore how organisms and their populations respond to short- and long-term environmental changes, including those caused by human activities.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement comparative and experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter is composed of atoms and has chemical and physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the structure of atoms, including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud;

(B) identify that protons determine an element's identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, including reactivity;

(C) interpret the arrangement of the Periodic Table, including groups and periods, to explain how properties are used to classify elements;

(D) recognize that chemical formulas are used to identify substances and determine the number of atoms of each element in chemical formulas containing subscripts;

(E) investigate how evidence of chemical reactions indicate that new substances with different properties are formed; and

(F) recognize whether a chemical equation containing coefficients is balanced or not and how that relates to the law of conservation of mass.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that there is a relationship between force, motion, and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the speed or direction of an object's motion;

(B) differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration; and

(C) investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows the effects resulting from cyclical movements of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The student is expected to:

(A) model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun causing changes in seasons;

(B) demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle; and

(C) relate the position of the Moon and Sun to their effect on ocean tides.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and use models such as the Herztsprung-Russell diagram for classification;

(B) recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of stars and that the Sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star;

(C) explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to gain information about distances and properties of components in the universe;

(D) model and describe how light years are used to measure distances and sizes in the universe; and

(E) research how scientific data are used as evidence to develop scientific theories to describe the origin of the universe.

(9) Earth and space. The student knows that natural events can impact Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the historical development of evidence that supports plate tectonic theory;

(B) relate plate tectonics to the formation of crustal features; and

(C) interpret topographic maps and satellite views to identify land and erosional features and predict how these features may be reshaped by weathering.

(10) Earth and space. The student knows that climatic interactions exist among Earth, ocean, and weather systems. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize that the Sun provides the energy that drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents;

(B) identify how global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather using weather maps that show high and low pressures and fronts; and

(C) identify the role of the oceans in the formation of weather systems such as hurricanes.

(11) Organisms and environments. The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems and the environment and that human activities can affect these systems. The student is expected to:

(A) describe producer/consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships as they occur in food webs within marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems;

(B) investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic and abiotic factors such as quantity of light, water, range of temperatures, or soil composition;

(C) explore how short- and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations; and

(D) recognize human dependence on ocean systems and explain how human activities such as runoff, artificial reefs, or use of resources have modified these systems.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.20 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.21: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Middle School

The provisions of §§112.22-112.24 of this subchapter shall be superseded by §§112.18-112.20 of this subchapter beginning with the 2010-2011 school year.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.21 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647; amended to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.22: Science, Grade 6

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 6, the study of science includes conducting field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing data, making informed decisions, and using tools such as beakers, test tubes and spring scales to collect, analyze, and record information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components of the solar system including the sun, planets, moon, and asteroids and learn how seasons and the length of the day are caused by the tilt and rotation of the Earth as it orbits the sun. Students investigate the rock cycle and identify sources of water in a watershed. In addition, students identify changes in objects including position, direction, and speed when acted upon by a force.

(3) Students classify substances by their chemical properties and identify the water cycle and decay of biomass as examples of the interactions between matter and energy. They identify life processes and the relationships between structure and function of organisms.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 6 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, analyze, and record information using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, timing devices, hot plates, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, magnets, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, compasses, computers, and computer probes; and

(B) identify patterns in collected information using percent, average, range, and frequency.

(5) Scientific concepts. The student knows that systems may combine with other systems to form a larger system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe a system that results from the combination of two or more systems such as in the solar system; and

(B) describe how the properties of a system are different from the properties of its parts.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the changes in position, direction of motion, and speed of an object when acted upon by force;

(B) demonstrate that changes in motion can be measured and graphically represented; and

(C) identify forces that shape features of the Earth including uplifting, movement of water, and volcanic activity.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that substances have physical and chemical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate that new substances can be made when two or more substances are chemically combined and compare the properties of the new substances to the original substances; and

(B) classify substances by their physical and chemical properties.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that complex interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) define matter and energy;

(B) explain and illustrate the interactions between matter and energy in the water cycle and in the decay of biomass such as in a compost bin; and

(C) describe energy flow in living systems including food chains and food webs.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that obtaining, transforming, and distributing energy affects the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify energy transformations occurring during the production of energy for human use such as electrical energy to heat energy or heat energy to electrical energy;

(B) compare methods used for transforming energy in devices such as water heaters, cooling systems, or hydroelectric and wind power plants; and

(C) research and describe energy types from their source to their use and determine if the type is renewable, non-renewable, or inexhaustible.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows the relationship between structure and function in living systems. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between structure and function;

(B) determine that all organisms are composed of cells that carry on functions to sustain life; and

(C) identify how structure complements function at different levels of organization including organs, organ systems, organisms, and populations.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that traits of species can change through generations and that the instructions for traits are contained in the genetic material of the organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) identify some changes in traits that can occur over several generations through natural occurrence and selective breeding;

(B) identify cells as structures containing genetic material; and

(C) interpret the role of genes in inheritance.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows that the responses of organisms are caused by internal or external stimuli. The student is expected to:

(A) identify responses in organisms to internal stimuli such as hunger or thirst;

(B) identify responses in organisms to external stimuli such as the presence or absence of heat or light; and

(C) identify components of an ecosystem to which organisms may respond.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows components of our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of objects in our solar system including the sun, planets, meteorites, comets, asteroids, and moons; and

(B) describe types of equipment and transportation needed for space travel.

(14) Science concepts. The student knows the structures and functions of Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize the rock cycle;

(B) identify relationships between groundwater and surface water in a watershed; and

(C) describe components of the atmosphere, including oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor, and identify the role of atmospheric movement in weather change.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.22 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.23: Science, Grade 7

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 7, the study of science includes conducting field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, critical-thinking, problem-solving, and using tools such as weather instruments and calculators to collect and analyze information to explain a phenomenon. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify gravity and phases of the moon as components of the solar system and explore the effects of events such as hurricanes on the Earth. Students use pulleys and levers to understand the relationship between force and motion. Students then relate the concept to processes in the human organism such as the movement of blood. In addition, students study chemical and physical properties of substances by examining the tarnishing of metal or burning of wood as examples of chemical processes, and by identifying physical properties used to place elements on the periodic table.

(3) Students learn about kinetic and potential energy and identify photosynthesis as an example of the transformation of radiant energy from the sun into chemical energy for use by plants. Students investigate systems in humans to identify their structures and functions. Student compare asexual and sexual reproduction to illustrate that genetic materials are responsible for both dominant and recessive traits in organisms.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring;

(C) organize, analyze, make inferences, and predict trends from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(F) connect Grade 7 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, analyze, and record information to explain a phenomenon using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, hot plates, dissecting equipment, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, computers, computer probes, timing devices, magnets, and compasses; and

(B) collect and analyze information to recognize patterns such as rates of change.

(5) Scientific concepts. The student knows that an equilibrium of a system may change. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how systems may reach an equilibrium such as when a volcano erupts; and

(B) observe and describe the role of ecological succession in maintaining an equilibrium in an ecosystem.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate basic relationships between force and motion using simple machines including pulleys and levers;

(B) demonstrate that an object will remain at rest or move at a constant speed and in a straight line if it is not being subjected to an unbalanced force; and

(C) relate forces to basic processes in living organisms including the flow of blood and the emergence of seedlings.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that substances have physical and chemical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and demonstrate everyday examples of chemical phenomena such as rusting and tarnishing of metals and burning of wood;

(B) describe physical properties of elements and identify how they are used to position an element on the periodic table; and

(C) recognize that compounds are composed of elements.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that complex interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) illustrate examples of potential and kinetic energy in everyday life such as objects at rest, movement of geologic faults, and falling water; and

(B) identify that radiant energy from the sun is transferred into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the relationship between structure and function in living systems. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the systems of the human organism and describe their functions; and

(B) describe how organisms maintain stable internal conditions while living in changing external environments.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that species can change through generations and that the instructions for traits are contained in the genetic material of the organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) identify that sexual reproduction results in more diverse offspring and asexual reproduction results in more uniform offspring;

(B) compare traits of organisms of different species that enhance their survival and reproduction;

(C) distinguish between dominant and recessive traits and recognize that inherited traits of an individual are contained in genetic material.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that the responses of organisms are caused by internal or external stimuli. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze changes in organisms such as a fever or vomiting that may result from internal stimuli; and

(B) identify responses in organisms to external stimuli found in the environment such as the presence or absence of light.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between organisms and the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify components of an ecosystem;

(B) observe and describe how organisms including producers, consumers, and decomposers live together in an environment and use existing resources;

(C) describe how different environments support different varieties of organisms; and

(D) observe and describe the role of ecological succession in ecosystems.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows components of our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and illustrate how the tilt of the Earth on its axis as it rotates and revolves around the Sun causes changes in seasons and the length of a day; and

(B) relate the Earth's movement and the moon's orbit to the observed cyclical phases of the moon.

(14) Science concepts. The student knows that natural events and human activity can alter Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and predict the impact of different catastrophic events on the Earth;

(B) analyze effects of regional erosional deposition and weathering; and

(C) make inferences and draw conclusions about effects of human activity on Earth's renewable, non-renewable, and inexhaustible resources.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.23 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.24: Science, Grade 8

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 8, the study of science includes planning and conducting field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing data, critical-thinking, scientific problem-solving, and using tools such as telescopes to collect and analyze information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify the roles of both human activities and natural events in altering Earth systems. Students learn that stars and galaxies are part of the universe, identify light years as a way to describe distance, and learn about scientific theories of the origin of the universe. Cycles within Earth systems are studied as students learn about lunar cycles and the rock cycle.

(3) Students examine information on the periodic table to recognize that elements are grouped into families. In addition, students demonstrate that exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions indicate that energy is lost or gained during a chemical reaction. Interactions in matter and energy are explored in solar, weather, and ocean systems. Students identify the origin of waves and investigate their ability to travel through different media.

(4) Students predict possible outcomes that result from different genetic combinations and explore the extinction of some species.

(5) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(6) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(7) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 8 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and analyze information using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, hot plates, dissecting equipment, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, computers, computer probes, water test kits, and timing devices; and

(B) extrapolate from collected information to make predictions.

(5) Scientific processes. The student knows that relationships exist between science and technology. The student is expected to:

(A) identify a design problem and propose a solution;

(B) design and test a model to solve the problem; and

(C) evaluate the model and make recommendations for improving the model.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems. The student is expected to:

(A) describe interactions among systems in the human organism;

(B) identify feedback mechanisms that maintain equilibrium of systems such as body temperature, turgor pressure, and chemical reactions; and

(C) describe interactions within ecosystems.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate how unbalanced forces cause changes in the speed or direction of an object's motion; and

(B) recognize that waves are generated and can travel through different media.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that matter is composed of atoms. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the structure and parts of an atom; and

(B) identify the properties of an atom including mass and electrical charge.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that substances have chemical and physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate that substances may react chemically to form new substances;

(B) interpret information on the periodic table to understand that physical properties are used to group elements;

(C) recognize the importance of formulas and equations to express what happens in a chemical reaction; and

(D) identify that physical and chemical properties influence the development and application of everyday materials such as cooking surfaces, insulation, adhesives, and plastics.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that complex interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) illustrate interactions between matter and energy including specific heat;

(B) describe interactions among solar, weather, and ocean systems; and

(C) identify and demonstrate that loss or gain of heat energy occurs during exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that traits of species can change through generations and that the instructions for traits are contained in the genetic material of the organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) identify that change in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individuals and of species;

(B) distinguish between inherited traits and other characteristics that result from interactions with the environment; and

(C) make predictions about possible outcomes of various genetic combinations of inherited characteristics.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows that cycles exist in Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and predict the sequence of events in the lunar and rock cycles;

(B) relate the role of oceans to climatic changes; and

(C) predict the results of modifying the Earth's nitrogen, water, and carbon cycles.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) describe characteristics of the universe such as stars and galaxies;

(B) explain the use of light years to describe distances in the universe; and

(C) research and describe historical scientific theories of the origin of the universe.

(14) Science concepts. The student knows that natural events and human activities can alter Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) predict land features resulting from gradual changes such as mountain building, beach erosion, land subsidence, and continental drift;

(B) analyze how natural or human events may have contributed to the extinction of some species; and

(C) describe how human activities have modified soil, water, and air quality.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.24 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

Subchapter C

§112.31: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011

The provisions of §§112.32-112.39 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2010-2011 school year and at that time shall supersede §§112.42-112.49 of this subchapter.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.31 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.32: Aquatic Science, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Required prerequisite: one unit of high school Biology. Suggested prerequisite: Chemistry or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Aquatic Science. In Aquatic Science, students study the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in aquatic environments, including impacts on aquatic systems. Investigations and field work in this course may emphasize fresh water or marine aspects of aquatic science depending primarily upon the natural resources available for study near the school. Students who successfully complete Aquatic Science will acquire knowledge about a variety of aquatic systems, conduct investigations and observations of aquatic environments, work collaboratively with peers, and develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety, and safe handling of live and preserved organisms; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting, handling, and maintaining appropriate equipment and technology;

(F) collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range;

(G) demonstrate the use of course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures;

(H) organize, analyze, evaluate, build models, make inferences, and predict trends from data;

(I) perform calculations using dimensional analysis, significant digits, and scientific notation; and

(J) communicate valid conclusions using essential vocabulary and multiple modes of expression such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of research and technology on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(E) describe the connection between aquatic science and future careers; and

(F) research and describe the history of aquatic science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. Students know that aquatic environments are the product of Earth systems interactions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify key features and characteristics of atmospheric, geological, hydrological, and biological systems as they relate to aquatic environments;

(B) apply systems thinking to the examination of aquatic environments, including positive and negative feedback cycles; and

(C) collect and evaluate global environmental data using technology such as maps, visualizations, satellite data, Global Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), weather balloons, buoys, etc.

(5) Science concepts. The student conducts long-term studies on local aquatic environments. Local natural environments are to be preferred over artificial or virtual environments. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate data over a period of time from an established aquatic environment documenting seasonal changes and the behavior of organisms;

(B) collect baseline quantitative data, including pH, salinity, temperature, mineral content, nitrogen compounds, and turbidity from an aquatic environment;

(C) analyze interrelationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in a local aquatic ecosystem; and

(D) identify the interdependence of organisms in an aquatic environment such as in a pond, river, lake, ocean, or aquifer and the biosphere.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the role of cycles in an aquatic environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the role of carbon, nitrogen, water, and nutrient cycles in an aquatic environment, including upwellings and turnovers; and

(B) examine the interrelationships between aquatic systems and climate and weather, including El Niño and La Niña, currents, and hurricanes.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the origin and use of water in a watershed. The student is expected to:

(A) identify sources and determine the amounts of water in a watershed, including rainfall, groundwater, and surface water;

(B) identify factors that contribute to how water flows through a watershed; and

(C) identify water quantity and quality in a local watershed.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that geological phenomena and fluid dynamics affect aquatic systems. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate basic principles of fluid dynamics, including hydrostatic pressure, density, salinity, and buoyancy;

(B) identify interrelationships between ocean currents, climates, and geologic features; and

(C) describe and explain fluid dynamics in an upwelling and lake turnover.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the types and components of aquatic ecosystems. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among freshwater, brackish, and saltwater ecosystems;

(B) identify the major properties and components of different marine and freshwater life zones; and

(C) identify biological, chemical, geological, and physical components of an aquatic life zone as they relate to the organisms in it.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows environmental adaptations of aquatic organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) classify different aquatic organisms using tools such as dichotomous keys;

(B) compare and describe how adaptations allow an organism to exist within an aquatic environment; and

(C) compare differences in adaptations of aquatic organisms to fresh water and marine environments.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows about the interdependence and interactions that occur in aquatic environments. The student is expected to:

(A) identify how energy flows and matter cycles through both fresh water and salt water aquatic systems, including food webs, chains, and pyramids; and

(B) evaluate the factors affecting aquatic population cycles.

(12) Science concepts. The student understands how human activities impact aquatic environments. The student is expected to:

(A) predict effects of chemical, organic, physical, and thermal changes from humans on the living and nonliving components of an aquatic ecosystem;

(B) analyze the cumulative impact of human population growth on an aquatic system;

(C) investigate the role of humans in unbalanced systems such as invasive species, fish farming, cultural eutrophication, or red tides;

(D) analyze and discuss how human activities such as fishing, transportation, dams, and recreation influence aquatic environments; and

(E) understand the impact of various laws and policies such as The Endangered Species Act, right of capture laws, or Clean Water Act on aquatic systems.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.32 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.33: Astronomy, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Astronomy. In Astronomy, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study the following topics: astronomy in civilization, patterns and objects in the sky, our place in space, the moon, reasons for the seasons, planets, the sun, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and space exploration. Students who successfully complete Astronomy will acquire knowledge within a conceptual framework, conduct observations of the sky, work collaboratively, and develop critical-thinking skills.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision;

(G) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data, including making new revised hypotheses when appropriate;

(H) communicate valid conclusions in writing, oral presentations, and through collaborative projects; and

(I) use astronomical technology such as telescopes, binoculars, sextants, computers, and software.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) describe the connection between astronomy and future careers.

(4) Science concepts. The student recognizes the importance and uses of astronomy in civilization. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the use of astronomy in ancient civilizations such as the Egyptians, Mayans, Aztecs, Europeans, and the native Americans;

(B) research and describe the contributions of scientists to our changing understanding of astronomy, including Ptolemy, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and Hubble, and the contribution of women astronomers, including Maria Mitchell and Henrietta Swan Leavitt;

(C) describe and explain the historical origins of the perceived patterns of constellations and the role of constellations in ancient and modern navigation; and

(D) explain the contributions of modern astronomy to today's society, including the identification of potential asteroid/comet impact hazards and the Sun's effects on communication, navigation, and high-tech devices.

(5) Science concepts. The student develops a familiarity with the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record the apparent movement of the Sun and Moon during the day;

(B) observe and record the apparent movement of the Moon, planets, and stars in the nighttime sky; and

(C) recognize and identify constellations such as Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Orion, Cassiopeia, and constellations of the zodiac.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows our place in space. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast the scale, size, and distance of the Sun, Earth, and Moon system through the use of data and modeling;

(B) compare and contrast the scale, size, and distance of objects in the solar system such as the Sun and planets through the use of data and modeling;

(C) examine the scale, size, and distance of the stars, Milky Way, and other galaxies through the use of data and modeling;

(D) relate apparent versus absolute magnitude to the distances of celestial objects; and

(E) demonstrate the use of units of measurement in astronomy, including Astronomical Units and light years.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the role of the Moon in the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record data about lunar phases and use that information to model the Sun, Earth, and Moon system;

(B) illustrate the cause of lunar phases by showing positions of the Moon relative to Earth and the Sun for each phase, including new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, third quarter, and waning crescent;

(C) identify and differentiate the causes of lunar and solar eclipses, including differentiating between lunar phases and eclipses; and

(D) identify the effects of the Moon on tides.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows the reasons for the seasons. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize that seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth's axis;

(B) explain how latitudinal position affects the length of day and night throughout the year;

(C) recognize that the angle of incidence of sunlight determines the concentration of solar energy received on Earth at a particular location; and

(D) examine the relationship of the seasons to equinoxes, solstices, the tropics, and the equator.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that planets of different size, composition, and surface features orbit around the Sun. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast the factors essential to life on Earth such as temperature, water, mass, and gases to conditions on other planets;

(B) compare the planets in terms of orbit, size, composition, rotation, atmosphere, natural satellites, and geological activity;

(C) relate the role of Newton's law of universal gravitation to the motion of the planets around the Sun and to the motion of natural and artificial satellites around the planets; and

(D) explore the origins and significance of small solar system bodies, including asteroids, comets, and Kuiper belt objects.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows the role of the Sun as the star in our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the approximate mass, size, motion, temperature, structure, and composition of the Sun;

(B) distinguish between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission, and identify the source of energy within the Sun as nuclear fusion of hydrogen to helium;

(C) describe the eleven-year solar cycle and the significance of sunspots; and

(D) analyze solar magnetic storm activity, including coronal mass ejections, prominences, flares, and sunspots.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and life cycle of stars. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the characteristics of main sequence stars, including surface temperature, age, relative size, and composition;

(B) characterize star formation in stellar nurseries from giant molecular clouds, to protostars, to the development of main sequence stars;

(C) evaluate the relationship between mass and fusion on the dying process and properties of stars;

(D) differentiate among the end states of stars, including white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes;

(E) compare how the mass and gravity of a main sequence star will determine its end state as a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole;

(F) relate the use of spectroscopy in obtaining physical data on celestial objects such as temperature, chemical composition, and relative motion; and

(G) use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to plot and examine the life cycle of stars from birth to death.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows the variety and properties of galaxies. The student is expected to:

(A) describe characteristics of galaxies;

(B) recognize the type, structure, and components of our Milky Way galaxy and location of our solar system within it; and

(C) compare and contrast the different types of galaxies, including spiral, elliptical, irregular, and dwarf.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows the scientific theories of cosmology. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the historical development of the Big Bang Theory, including red shift, cosmic microwave background radiation, and other supporting evidence;

(B) research and describe current theories of the evolution of the universe, including estimates for the age of the universe; and

(C) research and describe scientific hypotheses of the fate of the universe, including open and closed universes and the role of dark matter and dark energy.

(14) Science concepts. The student recognizes the benefits and challenges of space exploration to the study of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain the contributions of human space flight and future plans and challenges;

(B) recognize the advancement of knowledge in astronomy through robotic space flight;

(C) analyze the importance of ground-based technology in astronomical studies;

(D) recognize the importance of space telescopes to the collection of astronomical data across the electromagnetic spectrum; and

(E) demonstrate an awareness of new developments and discoveries in astronomy.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.33 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.34: Biology, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9, 10, or 11.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Biology. In Biology, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students in Biology study a variety of topics that include: structures and functions of cells and viruses; growth and development of organisms; cells, tissues, and organs; nucleic acids and genetics; biological evolution; taxonomy; metabolism and energy transfers in living organisms; living systems; homeostasis; and ecosystems and the environment.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5) Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F) collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, cameras, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures;

(G) analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(H) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment;

(E) evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events; and

(F) research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;

(B) investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules; and

(C) compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms;

(B) examine specialized cells, including roots, stems, and leaves of plants; and animal cells such as blood, muscle, and epithelium;

(C) describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and environmental factors in cell differentiation; and

(D) recognize that disruptions of the cell cycle lead to diseases such as cancer.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the mechanisms of genetics, including the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian Genetics. The student is expected to:

(A) identify components of DNA, and describe how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA;

(B) recognize that components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms;

(C) explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation using models of DNA and RNA;

(D) recognize that gene expression is a regulated process;

(E) identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes;

(F) predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses and non-Mendelian inheritance;

(G) recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction; and

(H) describe how techniques such as DNA fingerprinting, genetic modifications, and chromosomal analysis are used to study the genomes of organisms.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies, including anatomical, molecular, and developmental;

(B) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations concerning any data of sudden appearance, stasis, and sequential nature of groups in the fossil record;

(C) analyze and evaluate how natural selection produces change in populations, not individuals;

(D) analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive success;

(E) analyze and evaluate the relationship of natural selection to adaptation and to the development of diversity in and among species;

(F) analyze and evaluate the effects of other evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, and recombination; and

(G) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations concerning the complexity of the cell.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that taxonomy is a branching classification based on the shared characteristics of organisms and can change as new discoveries are made. The student is expected to:

(A) define taxonomy and recognize the importance of a standardized taxonomic system to the scientific community;

(B) categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences shared among groups; and

(C) compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;

(B) compare the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy and matter;

(C) identify and investigate the role of enzymes; and

(D) analyze and evaluate the evidence regarding formation of simple organic molecules and their organization into long complex molecules having information such as the DNA molecule for self-replicating life.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals;

(B) describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport, reproduction, and response in plants; and

(C) analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis;

(B) investigate and analyze how organisms, populations, and communities respond to external factors;

(C) summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems; and

(D) describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations and species diversity.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret relationships, including predation, parasitism, commensalism, mutualism, and competition among organisms;

(B) compare variations and adaptations of organisms in different ecosystems;

(C) analyze the flow of matter and energy through trophic levels using various models, including food chains, food webs, and ecological pyramids;

(D) recognize that long-term survival of species is dependent on changing resource bases that are limited;

(E) describe the flow of matter through the carbon and nitrogen cycles and explain the consequences of disrupting these cycles; and

(F) describe how environmental change can impact ecosystem stability.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.34 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.35: Chemistry, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Required prerequisites: one unit of high school science and Algebra I. Suggested prerequisite: completion of or concurrent enrollment in a second year of math. This course is recommended for students in Grade 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Chemistry. In Chemistry, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include characteristics of matter, use of the Periodic Table, development of atomic theory and chemical bonding, chemical stoichiometry, gas laws, solution chemistry, thermochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Students will investigate how chemistry is an integral part of our daily lives.

(2) Nature of Science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including the appropriate use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles, and fire extinguishers;

(B) know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS); and

(C) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, safety goggles, and burettes, electronic balances, and an adequate supply of consumable chemicals;

(F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision;

(G) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;

(H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(I) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(E) describe the connection between chemistry and future careers; and

(F) research and describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties;

(B) identify extensive and intensive properties;

(C) compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of compressibility, structure, shape, and volume; and

(D) classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.

(5) Science concepts. The student understands the historical development of the Periodic Table and can apply its predictive power. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical development of the Periodic Table;

(B) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain the properties of chemical families, including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals; and

(C) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain periodic trends, including atomic and ionic radii, electronegativity, and ionization energy.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The student is expected to:

(A) understand the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory, including Dalton's Postulates, Thomson's discovery of electron properties, Rutherford's nuclear atom, and Bohr's nuclear atom;

(B) understand the electromagnetic spectrum and the mathematical relationships between energy, frequency, and wavelength of light;

(C) calculate the wavelength, frequency, and energy of light using Planck's constant and the speed of light;

(D) use isotopic composition to calculate average atomic mass of an element; and

(E) express the arrangement of electrons in atoms through electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows how atoms form ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds. The student is expected to:

(A) name ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases, using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature rules;

(B) write the chemical formulas of common polyatomic ions, ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases;

(C) construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic and covalent bonds;

(D) describe the nature of metallic bonding and apply the theory to explain metallic properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability, and ductility; and

(E) predict molecular structure for molecules with linear, trigonal planar, or tetrahedral electron pair geometries using Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory.

(8) Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) define and use the concept of a mole;

(B) use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample of material;

(C) calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas;

(D) use the law of conservation of mass to write and balance chemical equations; and

(E) perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass relationships between reactants and products, calculation of limiting reagents, and percent yield.

(9) Science concepts. The student understands the principles of ideal gas behavior, kinetic molecular theory, and the conditions that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and calculate the relations between volume, pressure, number of moles, and temperature for an ideal gas as described by Boyle's law, Charles' law, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure, and the ideal gas law;

(B) perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass and volume relationships between reactants and products for reactions involving gases; and

(C) describe the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.

(10) Science concepts. The student understands and can apply the factors that influence the behavior of solutions. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the unique role of water in chemical and biological systems;

(B) develop and use general rules regarding solubility through investigations with aqueous solutions;

(C) calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity;

(D) use molarity to calculate the dilutions of solutions;

(E) distinguish between types of solutions such as electrolytes and nonelectrolytes and unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions;

(F) investigate factors that influence solubilities and rates of dissolution such as temperature, agitation, and surface area;

(G) define acids and bases and distinguish between Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry definitions and predict products in acid base reactions that form water;

(H) understand and differentiate among acid-base reactions, precipitation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions;

(I) define pH and use the hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentrations to calculate the pH of a solution; and

(J) distinguish between degrees of dissociation for strong and weak acids and bases.

(11) Science concepts. The student understands the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) understand energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical, and thermal energies;

(B) understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer;

(C) use thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic;

(D) perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat; and

(E) use calorimetry to calculate the heat of a chemical process.

(12) Science concepts. The student understands the basic processes of nuclear chemistry. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation;

(B) describe radioactive decay process in terms of balanced nuclear equations; and

(C) compare fission and fusion reactions.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.35 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.36: Earth and Space Science, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Required prerequisites: three units of science, one of which may be taken concurrently, and three units of mathematics, one of which may be taken concurrently. This course is recommended for students in Grade 12 but may be taken by students in Grade 11.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Earth and Space Science (ESS). ESS is a capstone course designed to build on students' prior scientific and academic knowledge and skills to develop understanding of Earth's system in space and time.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) ESS themes. An Earth systems approach to the themes of Earth in space and time, solid Earth, and fluid Earth defined the selection and development of the concepts described in this paragraph.

(A) Earth in space and time. Earth has a long, complex, and dynamic history. Advances in technologies continue to further our understanding of the origin, evolution, and properties of Earth and planetary systems within a chronological framework. The origin and distribution of resources that sustain life on Earth are the result of interactions among Earth's subsystems over billions of years.

(B) Solid Earth. The geosphere is a collection of complex, interacting, dynamic subsystems linking Earth's interior to its surface. The geosphere is composed of materials that move between subsystems at various rates driven by the uneven distribution of thermal energy. These dynamic processes are responsible for the origin and distribution of resources as well as geologic hazards that impact society.

(C) Fluid Earth. The fluid Earth consists of the hydrosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere subsystems. These subsystems interact with the biosphere and geosphere resulting in complex biogeochemical and geochemical cycles. The global ocean is the thermal energy reservoir for surface processes and, through interactions with the atmosphere, influences climate. Understanding these interactions and cycles over time has implications for life on Earth.

(6) Earth and space science strands. ESS has three strands used throughout each of the three themes: systems, energy, and relevance.

(A) Systems. A system is a collection of interacting physical, chemical, and biological processes that involves the flow of matter and energy on different temporal and spatial scales. Earth's system is composed of interdependent and interacting subsystems of the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere within a larger planetary and stellar system. Change and constancy occur in Earth's system and can be observed, measured as patterns and cycles, and described or presented in models used to predict how Earth's system changes over time.

(B) Energy. The uneven distribution of Earth's internal and external thermal energy is the driving force for complex, dynamic, and continuous interactions and cycles in Earth's subsystems. These interactions are responsible for the movement of matter within and between the subsystems resulting in, for example, plate motions and ocean-atmosphere circulation.

(C) Relevance. The interacting components of Earth's system change by both natural and human-influenced processes. Natural processes include hazards such as flooding, earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, meteorite impacts, and climate change. Some human-influenced processes such as pollution and nonsustainable use of Earth's natural resources may damage Earth's system. Examples include climate change, soil erosion, air and water pollution, and biodiversity loss. The time scale of these changes and their impact on human society must be understood to make wise decisions concerning the use of the land, water, air, and natural resources. Proper stewardship of Earth will prevent unnecessary degradation and destruction of Earth's subsystems and diminish detrimental impacts to individuals and society.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts laboratory and field investigations, for at least 40% of instructional time, using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations;

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials; and

(C) use the school's technology and information systems in a wise and ethical manner.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) demonstrate the use of course equipment, techniques, and procedures, including computers and web-based computer applications;

(F) use a wide variety of additional course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures as appropriate such as satellite imagery and other remote sensing data, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), scientific probes, microscopes, telescopes, modern video and image libraries, weather stations, fossil and rock kits, bar magnets, coiled springs, wave simulators, tectonic plate models, and planetary globes;

(G) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data;

(H) use mathematical procedures such as algebra, statistics, scientific notation, and significant figures to analyze data using the International System (SI) units; and

(I) communicate valid conclusions supported by data using several formats such as technical reports, lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, presentations, and technical posters.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and public policy;

(E) explore careers and collaboration among scientists in Earth and space sciences; and

(F) learn and understand the contributions of scientists to the historical development of Earth and space sciences.

(4) Earth in space and time. The student knows how Earth-based and space-based astronomical observations reveal differing theories about the structure, scale, composition, origin, and history of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the evidence concerning the Big Bang model such as red shift and cosmic microwave background radiation and current theories of the evolution of the universe, including estimates for the age of the universe;

(B) explain how the Sun and other stars transform matter into energy through nuclear fusion; and

(C) investigate the process by which a supernova can lead to the formation of successive generation stars and planets.

(5) Earth in space and time. The student understands the solar nebular accretionary disk model. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how gravitational condensation of solar nebular gas and dust can lead to the accretion of planetesimals and protoplanets;

(B) investigate thermal energy sources, including kinetic heat of impact accretion, gravitational compression, and radioactive decay, which are thought to allow protoplanet differentiation into layers;

(C) contrast the characteristics of comets, asteroids, and meteoroids and their positions in the solar system, including the orbital regions of the terrestrial planets, the asteroid belt, gas giants, Kuiper Belt, and Oort Cloud;

(D) explore the historical and current hypotheses for the origin of the Moon, including the collision of Earth with a Mars-sized planetesimal;

(E) compare terrestrial planets to gas-giant planets in the solar system, including structure, composition, size, density, orbit, surface features, tectonic activity, temperature, and suitability for life; and

(F) compare extra-solar planets with planets in our solar system and describe how such planets are detected.

(6) Earth in space and time. The student knows the evidence for how Earth's atmospheres, hydrosphere, and geosphere formed and changed through time. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the changes of Earth's atmosphere that could have occurred through time from the original hydrogen-helium atmosphere, the carbon dioxide-water vapor-methane atmosphere, and the current nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere;

(B) evaluate the role of volcanic outgassing and impact of water-bearing comets in developing Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere;

(C) investigate how the formation of atmospheric oxygen and the ozone layer impacted the formation of the geosphere and biosphere; and

(D) evaluate the evidence that Earth's cooling led to tectonic activity, resulting in continents and ocean basins.

(7) Earth in space and time. The student knows that scientific dating methods of fossils and rock sequences are used to construct a chronology of Earth's history expressed in the geologic time scale. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate relative dating methods using original horizontality, rock superposition, lateral continuity, cross-cutting relationships, unconformities, index fossils, and biozones based on fossil succession to determine chronological order;

(B) calculate the ages of igneous rocks from Earth and the Moon and meteorites using radiometric dating methods; and

(C) understand how multiple dating methods are used to construct the geologic time scale, which represents Earth's approximate 4.6-billion-year history.

(8) Earth in space and time. The student knows that fossils provide evidence for geological and biological evolution. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate a variety of fossil types such as transitional fossils, proposed transitional fossils, fossil lineages, and significant fossil deposits with regard to their appearance, completeness, and alignment with scientific explanations in light of this fossil data;

(B) explain how sedimentation, fossilization, and speciation affect the degree of completeness of the fossil record; and

(C) evaluate the significance of the terminal Permian and Cretaceous mass extinction events, including adaptive radiations of organisms after the events.

(9) Solid Earth. The student knows Earth's interior is differentiated chemically, physically, and thermally. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate heat transfer through Earth's subsystems by radiation, convection, and conduction and include its role in plate tectonics, volcanism, ocean circulation, weather, and climate;

(B) examine the chemical, physical, and thermal structure of Earth's crust, mantle, and core, including the lithosphere and asthenosphere;

(C) explain how scientists use geophysical methods such as seismic wave analysis, gravity, and magnetism to interpret Earth's structure; and

(D) describe the formation and structure of Earth's magnetic field, including its interaction with charged solar particles to form the Van Allen belts and auroras.

(10) Solid Earth. The student knows that plate tectonics is the global mechanism for major geologic processes and that heat transfer, governed by the principles of thermodynamics, is the driving force. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how new conceptual interpretations of data and innovative geophysical technologies led to the current theory of plate tectonics;

(B) describe how heat and rock composition affect density within Earth's interior and how density influences the development and motion of Earth's tectonic plates;

(C) explain how plate tectonics accounts for geologic processes and features, including sea floor spreading, ocean ridges and rift valleys, subduction zones, earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain ranges, hot spots, and hydrothermal vents;

(D) calculate the motion history of tectonic plates using equations relating rate, time, and distance to predict future motions, locations, and resulting geologic features;

(E) distinguish the location, type, and relative motion of convergent, divergent, and transform plate boundaries using evidence from the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes; and

(F) evaluate the role of plate tectonics with respect to long-term global changes in Earth's subsystems such as continental buildup, glaciation, sea level fluctuations, mass extinctions, and climate change.

(11) Solid Earth. The student knows that the geosphere continuously changes over a range of time scales involving dynamic and complex interactions among Earth's subsystems. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the roles of erosion and deposition through the actions of water, wind, ice, gravity, and igneous activity by lava in constantly reshaping Earth's surface;

(B) explain how plate tectonics accounts for geologic surface processes and features, including folds, faults, sedimentary basin formation, mountain building, and continental accretion;

(C) analyze changes in continental plate configurations such as Pangaea and their impact on the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere through time;

(D) interpret Earth surface features using a variety of methods such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, and topographic and geologic maps using appropriate technologies; and

(E) evaluate the impact of changes in Earth's subsystems on humans such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, flooding, and storm surges and the impact of humans on Earth's subsystems such as population growth, fossil fuel burning, and use of fresh water.

(12) Solid Earth. The student knows that Earth contains energy, water, mineral, and rock resources and that use of these resources impacts Earth's subsystems. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate how the use of energy, water, mineral, and rock resources affects Earth's subsystems;

(B) describe the formation of fossil fuels, including petroleum and coal;

(C) discriminate between renewable and nonrenewable resources based upon rate of formation and use;

(D) analyze the economics of resources from discovery to disposal, including technological advances, resource type, concentration and location, waste disposal and recycling, and environmental costs; and

(E) explore careers that involve the exploration, extraction, production, use, and disposal of Earth's resources.

(13) Fluid Earth. The student knows that the fluid Earth is composed of the hydrosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere subsystems that interact on various time scales with the biosphere and geosphere. The student is expected to:

(A) quantify the components and fluxes within the hydrosphere such as changes in polar ice caps and glaciers, salt water incursions, and groundwater levels in response to precipitation events or excessive pumping;

(B) analyze how global ocean circulation is the result of wind, tides, the Coriolis effect, water density differences, and the shape of the ocean basins;

(C) analyze the empirical relationship between the emissions of carbon dioxide, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and the average global temperature trends over the past 150 years;

(D) discuss mechanisms and causes such as selective absorbers, major volcanic eruptions, solar luminance, giant meteorite impacts, and human activities that result in significant changes in Earth's climate;

(E) investigate the causes and history of eustatic sea-level changes that result in transgressive and regressive sedimentary sequences; and

(F) discuss scientific hypotheses for the origin of life by abiotic chemical processes in an aqueous environment through complex geochemical cycles given the complexity of living systems.

(14) Fluid Earth. The student knows that Earth's global ocean stores solar energy and is a major driving force for weather and climate through complex atmospheric interactions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the uneven distribution of solar energy on Earth's surface, including differences in atmospheric transparency, surface albedo, Earth's tilt, duration of insolation, and differences in atmospheric and surface absorption of energy;

(B) investigate how the atmosphere is heated from Earth's surface due to absorption of solar energy, which is re-radiated as thermal energy and trapped by selective absorbers; and

(C) explain how thermal energy transfer between the ocean and atmosphere drives surface currents, thermohaline currents, and evaporation that influence climate.

(15) Fluid Earth. The student knows that interactions among Earth's five subsystems influence climate and resource availability, which affect Earth's habitability. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how changing surface-ocean conditions, including El Niño-Southern Oscillation, affect global weather and climate patterns;

(B) investigate evidence such as ice cores, glacial striations, and fossils for climate variability and its use in developing computer models to explain present and predict future climates;

(C) quantify the dynamics of surface and groundwater movement such as recharge, discharge, evapotranspiration, storage, residence time, and sustainability;

(D) explain the global carbon cycle, including how carbon exists in different forms within the five subsystems and how these forms affect life; and

(E) analyze recent global ocean temperature data to predict the consequences of changing ocean temperature on evaporation, sea level, algal growth, coral bleaching, hurricane intensity, and biodiversity.

§112.37: Environmental Systems, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit high school life science and one unit of high school physical science. This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Environmental Systems. In Environmental Systems, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: biotic and abiotic factors in habitats, ecosystems and biomes, interrelationships among resources and an environmental system, sources and flow of energy through an environmental system, relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems, and changes in environments.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts hands-on laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including appropriate first aid responses to accidents that could occur in the field such as insect stings, animal bites, overheating, sprains, and breaks; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) follow or plan and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F) collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range;

(G) demonstrate the use of course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including meter sticks, rulers, pipettes, graduated cylinders, triple beam balances, timing devices, pH meters or probes, thermometers, calculators, computers, Internet access, turbidity testing devices, hand magnifiers, work and disposable gloves, compasses, first aid kits, binoculars, field guides, water quality test kits or probes, soil test kits or probes, 100-foot appraiser's tapes, tarps, shovels, trowels, screens, buckets, and rock and mineral samples;

(H) use a wide variety of additional course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as air quality testing devices, cameras, flow meters, Global Positioning System (GPS) units, Geographic Information System (GIS) software, computer models, densiometers, clinometers, and field journals;

(I) organize, analyze, evaluate, build models, make inferences, and predict trends from data;

(J) perform calculations using dimensional analysis, significant digits, and scientific notation; and

(K) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(E) describe the connection between environmental science and future careers; and

(F) research and describe the history of environmental science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the relationships of biotic and abiotic factors within habitats, ecosystems, and biomes. The student is expected to:

(A) identify native plants and animals using a dichotomous key;

(B) assess the role of native plants and animals within a local ecosystem and compare them to plants and animals in ecosystems within four other biomes;

(C) diagram abiotic cycles, including the rock, hydrologic, carbon, and nitrogen cycles;

(D) make observations and compile data about fluctuations in abiotic cycles and evaluate the effects of abiotic factors on local ecosystems and local biomes;

(E) measure the concentration of solute, solvent, and solubility of dissolved substances such as dissolved oxygen, chlorides, and nitrates and describe their impact on an ecosystem;

(F) predict how the introduction or removal of an invasive species may alter the food chain and affect existing populations in an ecosystem;

(G) predict how species extinction may alter the food chain and affect existing populations in an ecosystem; and

(H) research and explain the causes of species diversity and predict changes that may occur in an ecosystem if species and genetic diversity is increased or reduced.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the interrelationships among the resources within the local environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize methods of land use and management and describe its effects on land fertility;

(B) identify source, use, quality, management, and conservation of water;

(C) document the use and conservation of both renewable and non-renewable resources as they pertain to sustainability;

(D) identify renewable and non-renewable resources that must come from outside an ecosystem such as food, water, lumber, and energy;

(E) analyze and evaluate the economic significance and interdependence of resources within the environmental system; and

(F) evaluate the impact of waste management methods such as reduction, reuse, recycling, and composting on resource availability.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the sources and flow of energy through an environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) define and identify the components of the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere and the interactions among them;

(B) describe and compare renewable and non-renewable energy derived from natural and alternative sources such as oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, and wind;

(C) explain the flow of energy in an ecosystem, including conduction, convection, and radiation;

(D) investigate and explain the effects of energy transformations in terms of the laws of thermodynamics within an ecosystem; and

(E) investigate and identify energy interactions in an ecosystem.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems. The student is expected to:

(A) relate carrying capacity to population dynamics;

(B) calculate birth rates and exponential growth of populations;

(C) analyze and predict the effects of non-renewable resource depletion; and

(D) analyze and make predictions about the impact on populations of geographic locales due to diseases, birth and death rates, urbanization, and natural events such as migration and seasonal changes.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that environments change naturally. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and describe the effects on areas impacted by natural events such as tectonic movement, volcanic events, fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, flooding, tsunamis, and population growth;

(B) explain how regional changes in the environment may have a global effect;

(C) examine how natural processes such as succession and feedback loops restore habitats and ecosystems;

(D) describe how temperature inversions impact weather conditions, including El Niño and La Niña oscillations; and

(E) analyze the impact of temperature inversions on global warming, ice cap and glacial melting, and changes in ocean currents and surface temperatures.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of human activities on the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify causes of air, soil, and water pollution, including point and nonpoint sources;

(B) investigate the types of air, soil, and water pollution such as chlorofluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, pH, pesticide runoff, thermal variations, metallic ions, heavy metals, and nuclear waste;

(C) examine the concentrations of air, soil, and water pollutants using appropriate units;

(D) describe the effect of pollution on global warming, glacial and ice cap melting, greenhouse effect, ozone layer, and aquatic viability;

(E) evaluate the effect of human activities, including habitat restoration projects, species preservation efforts, nature conservancy groups, hunting, fishing, ecotourism, all terrain vehicles, and small personal watercraft, on the environment;

(F) evaluate cost-benefit trade-offs of commercial activities such as municipal development, farming, deforestation, over-harvesting, and mining;

(G) analyze how ethical beliefs can be used to influence scientific practices such as methods for increasing food production;

(H) analyze and evaluate different views on the existence of global warming;

(I) discuss the impact of research and technology on social ethics and legal practices in situations such as the design of new buildings, recycling, or emission standards;

(J) research the advantages and disadvantages of "going green" such as organic gardening and farming, natural methods of pest control, hydroponics, xeriscaping, energy-efficient homes and appliances, and hybrid cars;

(K) analyze past and present local, state, and national legislation, including Texas automobile emissions regulations, the National Park Service Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act, and the Endangered Species Act; and

(L) analyze past and present international treaties and protocols such as the environmental Antarctic Treaty System, Montreal Protocol, and Kyoto Protocol.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.37 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.38: Integrated Physics and Chemistry, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9 or 10.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Integrated Physics and Chemistry. In Integrated Physics and Chemistry, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigation, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. This course integrates the disciplines of physics and chemistry in the following topics: force, motion, energy, and matter.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5) Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(C) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(D) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(E) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(E) describe connections between physics and chemistry and future careers; and

(F) research and describe the history of physics and chemistry and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and calculate an object's motion in terms of position, displacement, speed, and acceleration;

(B) measure and graph distance and speed as a function of time using moving toys;

(C) investigate how an object's motion changes only when a net force is applied, including activities and equipment such as toy cars, vehicle restraints, sports activities, and classroom objects;

(D) assess the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration, noting the relationship is independent of the nature of the force, using equipment such as dynamic carts, moving toys, vehicles, and falling objects;

(E) apply the concept of conservation of momentum using action and reaction forces such as students on skateboards;

(F) describe the gravitational attraction between objects of different masses at different distances, including satellites; and

(G) examine electrical force as a universal force between any two charged objects and compare the relative strength of the electrical force and gravitational force.

(5) Science concepts. The student recognizes multiple forms of energy and knows the impact of energy transfer and energy conservation in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and demonstrate that objects and substances in motion have kinetic energy such as vibration of atoms, water flowing down a stream moving pebbles, and bowling balls knocking down pins;

(B) demonstrate common forms of potential energy, including gravitational, elastic, and chemical, such as a ball on an inclined plane, springs, and batteries;

(C) demonstrate that moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces;

(D) investigate the law of conservation of energy;

(E) investigate and demonstrate the movement of thermal energy through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation such as in weather, living, and mechanical systems;

(F) evaluate the transfer of electrical energy in series and parallel circuits and conductive materials;

(G) explore the characteristics and behaviors of energy transferred by waves, including acoustic, seismic, light, and waves on water as they superpose on one another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, are absorbed by materials, and change direction when entering new materials;

(H) analyze energy conversions such as those from radiant, nuclear, and geothermal sources; fossil fuels such as coal, gas, oil; and the movement of water or wind; and

(I) critique the advantages and disadvantages of various energy sources and their impact on society and the environment.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that relationships exist between the structure and properties of matter. The student is expected to:

(A) examine differences in physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases as explained by the arrangement and motion of atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances and the strength of the forces of attraction between those particles;

(B) relate chemical properties of substances to the arrangement of their atoms or molecules;

(C) analyze physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds such as color, density, viscosity, buoyancy, boiling point, freezing point, conductivity, and reactivity;

(D) relate the physical and chemical behavior of an element, including bonding and classification, to its placement on the Periodic Table; and

(E) relate the structure of water to its function as a solvent and investigate the properties of solutions and factors affecting gas and solid solubility, including nature of solute, temperature, pressure, pH, and concentration.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate changes of state as it relates to the arrangement of particles of matter and energy transfer;

(B) recognize that chemical changes can occur when substances react to form different substances and that these interactions are largely determined by the valence electrons;

(C) demonstrate that mass is conserved when substances undergo chemical change and that the number and kind of atoms are the same in the reactants and products;

(D) analyze energy changes that accompany chemical reactions such as those occurring in heat packs, cold packs, and glow sticks and classify them as exothermic or endothermic reactions;

(E) describe types of nuclear reactions such as fission and fusion and their roles in applications such as medicine and energy production; and

(F) research and describe the environmental and economic impact of the end-products of chemical reactions such as those that may result in acid rain, degradation of water and air quality, and ozone depletion.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.38 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.39: Physics, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Algebra I is suggested as a prerequisite or co-requisite. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9, 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Physics. In Physics, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: laws of motion; changes within physical systems and conservation of energy and momentum; forces; thermodynamics; characteristics and behavior of waves; and atomic, nuclear, and quantum physics. Students who successfully complete Physics will acquire factual knowledge within a conceptual framework, practice experimental design and interpretation, work collaboratively with colleagues, and develop critical thinking skills.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts investigations, for at least 40% of instructional time, using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) design and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, identifying variables, selecting appropriate equipment and technology, and evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness;

(F) demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), triple beam balances, batteries, clamps, dynamics demonstration equipment, collision apparatus, data acquisition probes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), hand-held visual spectroscopes, hot plates, slotted and hooked lab masses, bar magnets, horseshoe magnets, plane mirrors, convex lenses, pendulum support, power supply, ring clamps, ring stands, stopwatches, trajectory apparatus, tuning forks, carbon paper, graph paper, magnetic compasses, polarized film, prisms, protractors, resistors, friction blocks, mini lamps (bulbs) and sockets, electrostatics kits, 90-degree rod clamps, metric rulers, spring scales, knife blade switches, Celsius thermometers, meter sticks, scientific calculators, graphing technology, computers, cathode ray tubes with horseshoe magnets, ballistic carts or equivalent, resonance tubes, spools of nylon thread or string, containers of iron filings, rolls of white craft paper, copper wire, Periodic Table, electromagnetic spectrum charts, slinky springs, wave motion ropes, and laser pointers;

(G) use a wide variety of additional course apparatus, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as ripple tank with wave generator, wave motion rope, micrometer, caliper, radiation monitor, computer, ballistic pendulum, electroscope, inclined plane, optics bench, optics kit, pulley with table clamp, resonance tube, ring stand screen, four inch ring, stroboscope, graduated cylinders, and ticker timer;

(H) make measurements with accuracy and precision and record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) units;

(I) identify and quantify causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data;

(J) organize and evaluate data and make inferences from data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs;

(K) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through various methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports; and

(L) express and manipulate relationships among physical variables quantitatively, including the use of graphs, charts, and equations.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) explain the impacts of the scientific contributions of a variety of historical and contemporary scientists on scientific thought and society;

(E) research and describe the connections between physics and future careers; and

(F) express and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically, including problems requiring proportional reasoning and graphical vector addition.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows and applies the laws governing motion in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and interpret graphs and charts describing different types of motion, including the use of real-time technology such as motion detectors or photogates;

(B) describe and analyze motion in one dimension using equations with the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, and acceleration;

(C) analyze and describe accelerated motion in two dimensions using equations, including projectile and circular examples;

(D) calculate the effect of forces on objects, including the law of inertia, the relationship between force and acceleration, and the nature of force pairs between objects;

(E) develop and interpret free-body force diagrams; and

(F) identify and describe motion relative to different frames of reference.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the nature of forces in the physical world. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces;

(B) describe and calculate how the magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their masses and the distance between their centers;

(C) describe and calculate how the magnitude of the electrical force between two objects depends on their charges and the distance between them;

(D) identify examples of electric and magnetic forces in everyday life;

(E) characterize materials as conductors or insulators based on their electrical properties;

(F) design, construct, and calculate in terms of current through, potential difference across, resistance of, and power used by electric circuit elements connected in both series and parallel combinations;

(G) investigate and describe the relationship between electric and magnetic fields in applications such as generators, motors, and transformers; and

(H) describe evidence for and effects of the strong and weak nuclear forces in nature.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and applies the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and calculate quantities using the work-energy theorem in various situations;

(B) investigate examples of kinetic and potential energy and their transformations;

(C) calculate the mechanical energy of, power generated within, impulse applied to, and momentum of a physical system;

(D) demonstrate and apply the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum in one dimension;

(E) describe how the macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system such as temperature, specific heat, and pressure are related to the molecular level of matter, including kinetic or potential energy of atoms;

(F) contrast and give examples of different processes of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation; and

(G) analyze and explain everyday examples that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics, including the law of conservation of energy and the law of entropy.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and behavior of waves. The student is expected to:

(A) examine and describe oscillatory motion and wave propagation in various types of media;

(B) investigate and analyze characteristics of waves, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength, and calculate using the relationship between wavespeed, frequency, and wavelength;

(C) compare characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves, including electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic spectrum, and characteristics and behaviors of longitudinal waves, including sound waves;

(D) investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, resonance, and the Doppler effect;

(E) describe and predict image formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex lens; and

(F) describe the role of wave characteristics and behaviors in medical and industrial applications.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows simple examples of atomic, nuclear, and quantum phenomena. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the photoelectric effect and the dual nature of light;

(B) compare and explain the emission spectra produced by various atoms;

(C) describe the significance of mass-energy equivalence and apply it in explanations of phenomena such as nuclear stability, fission, and fusion; and

(D) give examples of applications of atomic and nuclear phenomena such as radiation therapy, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear power and examples of applications of quantum phenomena such as digital cameras.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.39 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.41: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School

The provisions of §§112.42-112.49 of this subchapter shall be superseded by §§112.32-112.39 of this subchapter beginning with the 2010-2011 school year.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.41 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647; amended to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062

§112.42: Integrated Physics and Chemistry

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9 or 10.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Integrated Physics and Chemistry, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical-thinking and scientific problem-solving. This course integrates the disciplines of physics and chemistry in the following topics: motion, waves, energy transformations, properties of matter, changes in matter, and solution chemistry.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe connections between physics and chemistry, and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of physics, chemistry, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines;

(B) investigate and describe applications of Newton's laws such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, geological processes, and satellite orbits;

(C) analyze the effects caused by changing force or distance in simple machines as demonstrated in household devices, the human body, and vehicles; and

(D) investigate and demonstrate mechanical advantage and efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels and axles, pulleys, and ramps.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the effects of waves on everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate wave types and their characteristics through a variety of activities such as modeling with ropes and coils, activating tuning forks, and interpreting data on seismic waves;

(B) demonstrate wave interactions including interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, and resonance within various materials;

(C) identify uses of electromagnetic waves in various technological applications such as fiber optics, optical scanners, and microwaves; and

(D) demonstrate the application of acoustic principles such as in echolocation, musical instruments, noise pollution, and sonograms.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the law of conservation of energy;

(B) investigate and demonstrate the movement of heat through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation;

(C) analyze the efficiency of energy conversions that are responsible for the production of electricity such as from radiant, nuclear, and geothermal sources, fossil fuels such as coal, gas, oil, and the movement of water or wind;

(D) investigate and compare economic and environmental impacts of using various energy sources such as rechargeable or disposable batteries and solar cells;

(E) measure the thermal and electrical conductivity of various materials and explain results;

(F) investigate and compare series and parallel circuits;

(G) analyze the relationship between an electric current and the strength of its magnetic field using simple electromagnets; and

(H) analyze the effects of heating and cooling processes in systems such as weather, living, and mechanical.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and identify properties of fluids including density, viscosity, and buoyancy;

(B) research and describe the historical development of the atomic theory;

(C) identify constituents of various materials or objects such as metal salts, light sources, fireworks displays, and stars using spectral-analysis techniques;

(D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table; and

(E) classify samples of matter from everyday life as being elements, compounds, or mixtures.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle;

(B) analyze energy changes that accompany chemical reactions such as those occurring in heat packs, cold packs, and glow sticks to classify them as endergonic or exergonic reactions;

(C) investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass;

(D) describe types of nuclear reactions such as fission and fusion and their roles in applications such as medicine and energy production; and

(E) research and describe the environmental and economic impact of the end-products of chemical reactions.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) relate the structure of water to its function as the universal solvent;

(B) relate the concentration of ions in a solution to physical and chemical properties such as pH, electrolytic behavior, and reactivity;

(C) simulate the effects of acid rain on soil, buildings, statues, or microorganisms;

(D) demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent; and

(E) demonstrate how factors such as particle size, influence the rate of dissolving.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.42 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.43: Biology

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9, 10, or 11.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Biology, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical-thinking and scientific problem-solving. Students in Biology study a variety of topics that include: structures and functions of cells and viruses; growth and development of organisms; cells, tissues, and organs; nucleic acids and genetics; biological evolution; taxonomy; metabolism and energy transfers in living organisms; living systems; homeostasis; ecosystems; and plants and the environment.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) evaluate promotional claims that relate to biological issues such as product labeling and advertisements;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between biology and future careers;

(E) evaluate models according to their adequacy in representing biological objects or events; and

(F) research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the parts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;

(B) investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules;

(C) compare the structure and functions of viruses to cells and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases and conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and warts; and

(D) identify and describe the role of bacteria in maintaining health such as in digestion and in causing diseases such as in streptococcus infections and diphtheria.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows how an organism grows and how specialized cells, tissues, and organs develop. The student is expected to:

(A) compare cells from different parts of plants and animals including roots, stems, leaves, epithelia, muscles, and bones to show specialization of structure and function;

(B) identify cell differentiation in the development of organisms; and

(C) sequence the levels of organization in multicellular organisms to relate the parts to each other and to the whole.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to:

(A) describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA;

(B) explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA);

(C) identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes;

(D) compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals;

(E) compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis and their significance to sexual and asexual reproduction; and

(F) identify and analyze karyotypes.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the theory of biological evolution. The student is expected to:

(A) identify evidence of change in species using fossils, DNA sequences, anatomical similarities, physiological similarities, and embryology; and

(B) illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation, diversity, phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and extinction.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows applications of taxonomy and can identify its limitations. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and classify organisms at several taxonomic levels such as species, phylum, and kingdom using dichotomous keys;

(B) analyze relationships among organisms and develop a model of a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences using taxonomic nomenclature; and

(C) identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows metabolic processes and energy transfers that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;

(B) compare the energy flow in photosynthesis to the energy flow in cellular respiration;

(C) investigate and identify the effects of enzymes on food molecules; and

(D) analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune;

(B) compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole; and

(C) analyze and identify characteristics of plant systems and subsystems.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the relationships between internal feedback mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis;

(B) investigate and identify how organisms, including humans, respond to external stimuli;

(C) analyze the importance of nutrition, environmental conditions, and physical exercise on health; and

(D) summarize the role of microorganisms in maintaining and disrupting equilibrium including diseases in plants and animals and decay in an ecosystem.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the flow of energy through various cycles including the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and water cycles;

(B) interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism;

(C) compare variations, tolerances, and adaptations of plants and animals in different biomes;

(D) identify and illustrate that long-term survival of species is dependent on a resource base that may be limited; and

(E) investigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows the significance of plants in the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the significance of structural and physiological adaptations of plants to their environments; and

(B) survey and identify methods of reproduction, growth, and development of various types of plants.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.43 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.44: Environmental Systems

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Environmental Systems, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students in study a variety of topics that include: biotic and abiotic factors in habitats; ecosystems and biomes; interrelationships among resources and an environmental system; sources and flow of energy though an environmental system; relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems; and changes in environments.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between environmental science and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of environmental science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the relationships of biotic and abiotic factors within habitats, ecosystems, and biomes. The student is expected to:

(A) identify indigenous plants and animals, assess their role within an ecosystem, and compare them to plants and animals in other ecosystems and biomes;

(B) make observations and compile data about fluctuations in abiotic cycles and evaluate the effects of abiotic factors on local ecosystems and biomes;

(C) evaluate the impact of human activity such as methods of pest control, hydroponics, organic gardening, or farming on ecosystems;

(D) predict how the introduction, removal, or reintroduction of an organism may alter the food chain and affect existing populations; and

(E) predict changes that may occur in an ecosystem if biodiversity is increased or reduced.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the interrelationships among the resources within the local environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize methods of land use and management;

(B) identify source, use, quality, and conservation of water;

(C) document the use and conservation of both renewable and non-renewable resources;

(D) identify renewable and non-renewable resources that must come from outside an ecosystem such as food, water, lumber, and energy;

(E) analyze and evaluate the economic significance and interdependence of components of the environmental system; and

(F) evaluate the impact of human activity and technology on land fertility and aquatic viability.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the sources and flow of energy through an environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize forms and sources of energy;

(B) explain the flow of energy in an ecosystem;

(C) investigate and explain the effects of energy transformations within an ecosystem; and

(D) investigate and identify energy interactions in an ecosystem.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems. The student is expected to:

(A) relate carrying capacity to population dynamics;

(B) calculate exponential growth of populations;

(C) evaluate the depletion of non-renewable resources and propose alternatives; and

(D) analyze and make predictions about the impact on populations of geographic locales, natural events, diseases, and birth and death rates.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that environments change. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and describe the effects on environments of events such as fires, hurricanes, deforestation, mining, population growth, and municipal development;

(B) explain how regional changes in the environment may have a global effect;

(C) describe how communities have restored an ecosystem; and

(D) examine and describe a habitat restoration or protection program.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.44 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.45: Chemistry

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisites: one unit of high school science, Algebra I, and completion of or concurrent enrollment in a second year of math. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Chemistry, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: characteristics of matter; energy transformations during physical and chemical changes; atomic structure; periodic table of elements; behavior of gases; bonding; nuclear fusion and nuclear fission; oxidation-reduction reactions; chemical equations; solutes; properties of solutions; acids and bases; and chemical reactions. Students will investigate how chemistry is an integral part of our daily lives.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures such as dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;

(D) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(E) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between chemistry and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between physical and chemical properties of matter;

(B) analyze examples of solids, liquids, and gases to determine their compressibility, structure, motion of particles, shape, and volume;

(C) investigate and identify properties of mixtures and pure substances; and

(D) describe the physical and chemical characteristics of an element using the periodic table and make inferences about its chemical behavior.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows that energy transformations occur during physical or chemical changes in matter. The student is expected to:

(A) identify changes in matter, determine the nature of the change, and examine the forms of energy involved;

(B) identify and measure energy transformations and exchanges involved in chemical reactions; and

(C) measure the effects of the gain or loss of heat energy on the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that atomic structure is determined by nuclear composition, allowable electron cloud, and subatomic particles. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the existence and properties of subatomic particles;

(B) analyze stable and unstable isotopes of an element to determine the relationship between the isotope's stability and its application; and

(C) summarize the historical development of the periodic table to understand the concept of periodicity.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the variables that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:

(A) describe interrelationships among temperature, particle number, pressure, and volume of gases contained within a closed system; and

(B) illustrate the data obtained from investigations with gases in a closed system and determine if the data are consistent with Universal Gas Laws.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows how atoms form bonds to acquire a stable arrangement of electrons. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of atoms involved in chemical bonding;

(B) investigate and compare the physical and chemical properties of ionic and covalent compounds;

(C) compare the arrangement of atoms in molecules, ionic crystals, polymers, and metallic substances; and

(D) describe the influence of intermolecular forces on the physical and chemical properties of covalent compounds.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the processes, effects, and significance of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. The student is expected to:

(A) compare fission and fusion reactions in terms of the masses of the reactants and products and the amount of energy released in the nuclear reactions;

(B) investigate radioactive elements to determine half-life;

(C) evaluate the commercial use of nuclear energy and medical uses of radioisotopes; and

(D) evaluate environmental issues associated with the storage, containment, and disposal of nuclear wastes.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows common oxidation-reduction reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify oxidation-reduction processes; and

(B) demonstrate and document the effects of a corrosion process and evaluate the importance of electroplating metals.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that balanced chemical equations are used to interpret and describe the interactions of matter. The student is expected to:

(A) identify common elements and compounds using scientific nomenclature;

(B) demonstrate the use of symbols, formulas, and equations in describing interactions of matter such as chemical and nuclear reactions; and

(C) explain and balance chemical and nuclear equations using number of atoms, masses, and charge.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows the factors that influence the solubility of solutes in a solvent. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and explain effects of temperature and the nature of solid solutes on the solubility of solids;

(B) develop general rules for solubility through investigations with aqueous solutions; and

(C) evaluate the significance of water as a solvent in living organisms and in the environment.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows the relationships among the concentration, electrical conductivity, and colligative properties of a solution. The student is expected to:

(A) compare unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions;

(B) interpret relationships among ionic and covalent compounds, electrical conductivity, and colligative properties of water; and

(C) measure and compare the rates of reaction of a solid reactant in solutions of varying concentration.

(14) Science concepts. The student knows the properties and behavior of acids and bases. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and measure common household products using a variety of indicators to classify the products as acids or bases;

(B) demonstrate the electrical conductivity of acids and bases;

(C) identify the characteristics of a neutralization reaction; and

(D) describe effects of acids and bases on an ecological system.

(15) Science concepts. The student knows factors involved in chemical reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) verify the law of conservation of energy by evaluating the energy exchange that occurs as a consequence of a chemical reaction; and

(B) relate the rate of a chemical reaction to temperature, concentration, surface area, and presence of a catalyst.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.45 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.46: Aquatic Science

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Aquatic Science, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: components of an aquatic ecosystem; relationships among aquatic habitats and ecosystems; roles of cycles within an aquatic environment; adaptations of aquatic organisms; changes within aquatic environments; geological phenomena and fluid dynamics effects; and origin and use of water in a watershed.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) express and manipulate quantities using mathematical procedures such as dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;

(D) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(E) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between aquatic science and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of aquatic science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the components of aquatic ecosystems. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among freshwater, brackish, and saltwater ecosystems;

(B) research and identify biological, chemical, geological, and physical components of an aquatic ecosystem; and

(C) collect and analyze baseline quantitative data such as pH, salinity, temperature, mineral content, nitrogen compounds, and turbidity from an aquatic environment.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the relationships within and among the aquatic habitats and ecosystems in an aquatic environment. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and compile data over a period of time from an established aquatic habitat documenting seasonal changes and the behavior of organisms;

(B) observe and evaluate patterns and interrelationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in an aquatic ecosystem;

(C) identify the interdependence of organisms in an aquatic environment such as a pond, river, lake, ocean, or aquifer, and the biosphere; and

(D) evaluate trends in data to determine the factors that impact aquatic ecosystems.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the roles of cycles in an aquatic environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the role of various cycles such as carbon, nitrogen, water, and nutrients in an aquatic environment;

(B) interpret the role of aquatic systems in climate and weather; and

(C) collect and evaluate global environmental data using technology.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows environmental adaptations of aquatic organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) classify different aquatic organisms using dichotomous keys;

(B) compare and describe how adaptations allow an organism to exist within an aquatic environment;

(C) predict adaptations of an organism prompted by environmental changes; and

(D) compare differences in adaptations of aquatic organisms to fresh water and marine environments.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that aquatic environments change. The student is expected to:

(A) predict effects of chemical, organic, physical, and thermal changes on the living and nonliving components of an aquatic ecosystem;

(B) analyze the cumulative impact of natural and human influence on an aquatic system;

(C) identify and describe a local or global issue affecting an aquatic system; and

(D) analyze and discuss human influences on an aquatic environment including fishing, transportation, and recreation.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that geological phenomena and fluid dynamics affect aquatic systems. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate the principles of fluid dynamics including Archimedes' and Bernoulli's Principles and hydrostatic pressure;

(B) identify interrelationships of plate tectonics, ocean currents, climates, and biomes; and

(C) research and describe fluid dynamics in an upwelling.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows the origin and use of water in a watershed. The student is expected to:

(A) identify sources and determine the amounts of water in a watershed including groundwater and surface water;

(B) research and identify the types of uses and volumes of water used in a watershed; and

(C) identify water quantity and quality in a local watershed.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.46 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.47: Physics

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisites: one unit of high school science, Algebra I, and completion of or concurrent enrollment in a second year of mathematics. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Physics, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: laws of motion; changes within physical systems and conservation of energy and momentum; force; thermodynamics; characteristics and behavior of waves; and quantum physics. This course provides students with a conceptual framework, factual knowledge, and analytical and scientific skills.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement experimental procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) make quantitative observations and measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data;

(D) communicate valid conclusions;

(E) graph data to observe and identify relationships between variables; and

(F) read the scale on scientific instruments with precision.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) express laws symbolically and employ mathematical procedures including vector addition and right-triangle geometry to solve physical problems;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between physics and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of physics and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the laws governing motion. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and interpret graphs describing motion including the use of real-time technology;

(B) analyze examples of uniform and accelerated motion including linear, projectile, and circular;

(C) demonstrate the effects of forces on the motion of objects;

(D) develop and interpret a free-body diagram for force analysis; and

(E) identify and describe motion relative to different frames of reference.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and recognizes that energy and momentum are conserved. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret evidence for the work-energy theorem;

(B) observe and describe examples of kinetic and potential energy and their transformations;

(C) calculate the mechanical energy and momentum in a physical system such as billiards, cars, and trains; and

(D) demonstrate the conservation of energy and momentum.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows forces in nature. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the influence of mass and distance on gravitational forces;

(B) research and describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational, electrical, and magnetic force;

(C) identify and analyze the influences of charge and distance on electric forces;

(D) demonstrate the relationship between electricity and magnetism;

(E) design and analyze electric circuits; and

(F) identify examples of electrical and magnetic forces in everyday life.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the laws of thermodynamics. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and explain everyday examples that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics; and

(B) evaluate different methods of heat energy transfer that result in an increasing amount of disorder.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and behavior of waves. The student is expected to:

(A) examine and describe a variety of waves propagated in various types of media and describe wave characteristics such as velocity, frequency, amplitude, and behaviors such as reflection, refraction, and interference;

(B) identify the characteristics and behaviors of sound and electromagnetic waves; and

(C) interpret the role of wave characteristics and behaviors found in medicinal and industrial applications.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows simple examples of quantum physics. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the photoelectric effect; and

(B) explain the line spectra from different gas-discharge tubes.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.47 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.48: Astronomy

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Astronomy, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study the following topics: information about the universe; scientific theories of the evolution of the universe; characteristics and the life cycle of stars; exploration of the universe; role of the sun in our solar system; planets; and the orientation and placement of the Earth.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving skills to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between astronomy and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of astronomy and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows scientific information about the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record data about lunar phases and uses that information to model the Earth, moon, and sun system; and

(B) describe characteristics of galaxies.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the scientific theories of the evolution of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) research and analyze scientific empirical data on the estimated age of the universe;

(B) research and describe the historical development of the Big Bang Theory; and

(C) interpret data concerning the formation of galaxies and our solar system.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and the life cycle of stars. The student is expected to:

(A) describe nuclear reactions in stars;

(B) identify the characteristics of stars such as temperature, age, relative size, composition, and radial velocity using spectral analysis; and

(C) identify the stages in the life cycle of stars by examining the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows how mathematical models, computer simulations, and exploration can be used to study the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate the use of units of measurement in astronomy such as light year and Astronomical Units;

(B) research and describe the historical development of the laws of universal gravitation and planetary motion and the theory of special relativity;

(C) analyze a model that simulates planetary motion and universal gravitation;

(D) identify the historical origins of the perceived patterns of constellations and their role in ancient and modern navigation; and

(E) analyze the impact of the space program on the collection of data about the Earth and the universe.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows the role of the sun in our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the approximate mass, size, motion, temperature, structure, and composition of the sun;

(B) identify the source of energy within the sun and explain that the sun is the major source of energy for the Earth; and

(C) describe the sun's effects on the Earth.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that planets of different size, composition, and surface features orbit around the sun. The student is expected to:

(A) observe the night-time sky to determine movement of the planets relative to stars;

(B) compare the planets in terms of orbit, size, composition, rotation, atmosphere, moons, and geologic activity;

(C) identify objects, other than planets, that orbit the sun; and

(D) relate the role of gravitation to the motion of the planets around the sun and to the motion of moons and satellites around the planets.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows how life on Earth is affected by its unique placement and orientation in our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the factors essential to life on Earth such as temperature, water, mass, and gases to conditions on other planets;

(B) determine the effects of the Earth's rotation, revolution, and tilt on its environment; and

(C) identify the effects of the moon on tides.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.48 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.49: Geology, Meteorology, and Oceanography

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Geology, Meteorology, Oceanography, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: characteristics and conditions of the Earth; formation and history of the Earth; plate tectonics; origin and composition of minerals and rocks and the rock cycle; processes and products of weathering; natural energy resources; interactions in a watershed; characteristics of oceans; characteristics of the atmosphere; and the role of energy in weather and climate.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connections between geology, meteorology, oceanography, and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of geology, meteorology, oceanography, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the Earth's unique characteristics and conditions. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the Earth's unique placement in the solar system; and

(B) analyze conditions on Earth that enable organisms to survive.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows about the formation and history of the Earth. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the historical development of scientific theories of the Earth's formation; and

(B) use current theories to design and construct a geologic time scale.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the processes of plate tectonics. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the historical development of the theories of plate tectonics including continental drift and sea-floor spreading;

(B) analyze the processes that power the movement of the Earth's continental and oceanic plates and identify the effects of this movement including faulting, folding, earthquakes, and volcanic activity; and

(C) analyze methods of tracking continental and oceanic plate movement.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the origin and composition of minerals and rocks and the significance of the rock cycle. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate the density, hardness, streak, and cleavage of particular minerals;

(B) identify common minerals and describe their economic significance;

(C) classify rocks according to how they are formed during a rock cycle; and

(D) examine and describe conditions such as depth of formation, rate of cooling, and mineral composition that are factors in the formation of rock types.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows the processes and end products of weathering. The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish chemical from mechanical weathering and identify the role of weathering agents such as wind, water, and gravity;

(B) identify geologic formations that result from differing weathering processes; and

(C) illustrate the role of weathering in soil formation.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the role of natural energy resources. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the origin of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas;

(B) analyze issues regarding the use of fossil fuels and other renewable, non-renewable, or alternative energy resources; and

(C) analyze the significance and economic impact of the use of fossil fuels and alternative energy resources.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows the interactions that occur in a watershed. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the characteristics of a local watershed such as average annual rainfall, run-off patterns, aquifers, locations of river basins, and surface water reservoirs;

(B) analyze the impact of floods, droughts, irrigation, and industrialization on a watershed; and

(C) describe the importance and sources of surface and subsurface water.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows characteristics of oceans. The student is expected to:

(A) identify physical characteristics of ocean water including salinity, solubility, heat capacity, colligative properties, and density;

(B) evaluate the effects of tides, tidal bores, and tsunamis; and

(C) compare the topography of the ocean floor to the topography of the continents.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of the atmosphere. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the atmosphere as a mixture of gases, water vapor, and particulate matter;

(B) analyze the range of atmospheric conditions that organisms will tolerate including types of gases, temperature, particulate matter, and moisture; and

(C) determine the impact on the atmosphere of natural events and human activity.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows the role of energy in governing weather and climate. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the transfer of heat energy at the boundaries between the atmosphere, land masses, and oceans resulting in layers of different temperatures and densities in both the ocean and atmosphere;

(B) identify, describe, and compare climatic zones; and

(C) describe the effects of phenomena such as El Nino and the Jet Stream on local weather.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.49 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

Subchapter D

§112.61: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Other Science Courses

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.61 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.62: Advanced Placement (AP) Biology (One to One and One-Half Credits)

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Biology, Chemistry.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Biology are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Biology, published by The College Board.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.62 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.63: Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry (One to One and One-Half Credits)

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Chemistry, Algebra II.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Chemistry, published by The College Board.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.63 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.64: Advanced Placement (AP) Physics B (One to One and One-Half Credits)

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Physics, Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Physics are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Physics, published by The College Board.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.64 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.65: Advanced Placement (AP) Physics C (One to One and One-Half Credits)

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: for Physics, Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, Calculus.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Physics are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Physics, published by The College Board.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.65 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.66: Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science (One to One and One-Half Credits)

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Algebra I, two years of high school laboratory science including one year of life science and one year of physical science.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Environmental Science, published by The College Board.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.66 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.67: International Baccalaureate Biology (IB) (One to One and One-Half Credits)

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Biology are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.67 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.68: International Baccalaureate Chemistry (IB) (One to One and One-Half Credits)

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Chemistry are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.68 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.69: International Baccalaureate Physics (IB) (One to One and One-Half Credits)

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Physics are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.69 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.70: International Baccalaureate Environmental Systems (IB) (One Credit)

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisite: one year of high school science.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Environmental Systems are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.70 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.71: Principles of Technology (One Physics Credit)

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Prerequisites: one unit of high school science and Algebra I. To receive credit in science, students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement identified in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum).

(b) Introduction.

(1) Principles of Technology. In Principles of Technology, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Various systems will be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Students will study a variety of topics that include laws of motion, conservation of energy, momentum, electricity, magnetism, thermodynamics, and characteristics and behavior of waves. Students will apply physics concepts and perform laboratory experimentations for at least 40% of instructional time using safe practices.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) design and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, identifying variables, selecting appropriate equipment and technology, and evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness;

(F) demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), triple beam balances, batteries, clamps, dynamics demonstration equipment, collision apparatus, data acquisition probes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), hand-held visual spectroscopes, hot plates, slotted and hooked lab masses, bar magnets, horseshoe magnets, plane mirrors, convex lenses, pendulum support, power supply, ring clamps, ring stands, stopwatches, trajectory apparatus, tuning forks, carbon paper, graph paper, magnetic compasses, polarized film, prisms, protractors, resistors, friction blocks, mini lamps (bulbs) and sockets, electrostatics kits, 90-degree rod clamps, metric rulers, spring scales, knife blade switches, Celsius thermometers, meter sticks, scientific calculators, graphing technology, computers, cathode ray tubes with horseshoe magnets, ballistic carts or equivalent, resonance tubes, spools of nylon thread or string, containers of iron filings, rolls of white craft paper, copper wire, Periodic Table, electromagnetic spectrum charts, slinky springs, wave motion ropes, and laser pointers;

(G) use a wide variety of additional course apparatus, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as ripple tank with wave generator, wave motion rope, micrometer, caliper, radiation monitor, computer, ballistic pendulum, electroscope, inclined plane, optics bench, optics kit, pulley with table clamp, resonance tube, ring stand screen, four-inch ring, stroboscope, graduated cylinders, and ticker timer;

(H) make measurements with accuracy and precision and record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) units;

(I) identify and quantify causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data;

(J) organize and evaluate data and make inferences from data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs;

(K) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through various methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports; and

(L) express and manipulate relationships among physical variables quantitatively, including the use of graphs, charts, and equations.

(3) The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D) explain the impacts of the scientific contributions of a variety of historical and contemporary scientists on scientific thought and society;

(E) research and describe the connections between physics and future careers; and

(F) express and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically, including problems requiring proportional reasoning and graphical vector addition.

(4) The student uses the scientific process to investigate physical concepts. The student is expected to:

(A) understand that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported by observational evidence;

(B) understand that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers;

(C) design and implement investigative procedures;

(D) demonstrate the appropriate use and care of laboratory equipment;

(E) demonstrate accurate measurement techniques using precision instruments;

(F) record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) of units;

(G) identify and quantify causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data;

(H) organize and evaluate data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs;

(I) communicate conclusions supported through various methods such as laboratory reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, or technology-based reports; and

(J) record, express, and manipulate data using graphs, charts, and equations.

(5) The student demonstrates appropriate safety techniques in the field and laboratory environments. The student is expected to:

(A) master relevant safety procedures;

(B) follow safety guidelines as described in various manuals, instructions, and regulations;

(C) identify and classify hazardous materials and wastes; and

(D) make prudent choices in the conservation and use of resources and the disposal of hazardous materials and wastes appropriately.

(6) The student uses critical-thinking, scientific-reasoning, and problem-solving skills. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information;

(C) explain the societal impacts of scientific contributions; and

(D) research and describe the connections between technologies and future career opportunities.

(7) The student describes and applies the laws governing motion in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and interpret relevant equations using graphs and charts for one- and two-dimensional motion, including:

(i) using and describing one-dimensional equations for displacement, distance, speed, velocity, average velocity, acceleration, and average acceleration;

(ii) using and describing two-dimensional equations for projectile and circular motion; and

(iii) using and describing vector forces and resolution;

(B) describe and calculate the effects of forces on objects, including law of inertia and impulse and conservation of momentum;

(C) develop and interpret free-body force diagrams; and

(D) identify and describe motion relative to different frames of reference.

(8) The student describes the nature of forces in the physical world. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces;

(B) describe and calculate the magnitude of gravitational forces between two objects;

(C) describe and calculate the magnitude of electrical forces;

(D) describe the nature and identify everyday examples of magnetic forces and fields;

(E) describe the nature and identify everyday examples of electromagnetic forces and fields;

(F) characterize materials as conductors or insulators based on their electrical properties;

(G) design and construct both series and parallel circuits and calculate current, potential difference, resistance, and power of various circuits;

(H) investigate and describe the relationship between electric and magnetic fields in applications such as generators, motors, and transformers; and

(I) describe technological applications of the strong and weak nuclear forces in nature.

(9) The student describes and applies the laws of the conservation of energy and momentum. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the transformational process between work, potential energy, and kinetic energy (work-energy theorem);

(B) use examples to analyze and calculate the relationships among work, kinetic energy, and potential energy;

(C) describe and calculate the mechanical energy of, the power generated within, the impulse applied to, and the momentum of a physical system; and

(D) describe and apply the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum.

(10) The student analyzes the concept of thermal energy. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how the macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system such as temperature, specific heat, and pressure are related to the molecular level of matter, including kinetic or potential energy of atoms;

(B) contrast and give examples of different processes of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation; and

(C) analyze and explain technological examples such as solar and wind energy that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics, including the law of conservation of energy and the law of entropy.

(11) The student analyzes the properties of wave motion and optics. The student is expected to:

(A) examine and describe oscillatory motion and wave propagation in various types of media;

(B) investigate and analyze characteristics of waves, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength;

(C) investigate and calculate the relationship between wavespeed, frequency, and wavelength;

(D) compare and contrast the characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves, including electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic spectrum, and longitudinal waves, including sound waves;

(E) investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, resonance, and the Doppler effect;

(F) describe and predict image formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex lens; and

(G) describe the role of wave characteristics and behaviors in medical and industrial technology applications.

(12) The student analyzes the concepts of atomic, nuclear, and quantum phenomena. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the photoelectric effect and the dual nature of light;

(B) compare and explain emission spectra produced by various atoms;

(C) describe the significance of mass-energy equivalence and apply it in explanations of phenomena such as nuclear stability, fission, and fusion;

(D) describe the role of mass-energy equivalence for areas such as nuclear stability, fission, and fusion; and

(E) explore technology applications of atomic, nuclear, and quantum phenomena such as nanotechnology, radiation therapy, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear power.

§112.72: Other Courses for Which Students May Receive Science Credit

(a) Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources courses.

(1) Advanced Animal Science. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §130.7 of this title (relating to Advanced Animal Science (One Credit)). Recommended prerequisite: a minimum of one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 12.

(2) Advanced Plant and Soil Science. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §130.21 of this title (relating to Advanced Plant and Soil Science (One Credit)). Recommended prerequisite: a minimum of one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 12.

(b) Health science courses.

(1) Anatomy and Physiology. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §130.206 of this title (relating to Anatomy and Physiology (One Science Credit)). Recommended prerequisites: three credits of science. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(2) Medical Microbiology. Students shall be awarded one-half to one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §130.207 of this title (relating to Medical Microbiology (One-Half to One Science Credit)). Recommended prerequisites: three credits of science. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(3) Pathophysiology. Students shall be awarded one-half to one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §130.208 of this title (relating to Pathophysiology (One-Half to One Science Credit)). Recommended prerequisites: three credits of science. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(c) Hospitality and Tourism course. Food Science. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §130.230 of this title (relating to Food Science (One Credit)). Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Hospitality and Tourism. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(d) Law, Public Safety, Corrections, and Security course. Forensic Science. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §130.295 of this title (relating to Forensic Science (One Credit)). Prerequisites: Biology and Chemistry. Recommended prerequisites: Principles of Law, Public Safety, Corrections, and Security and Law Enforcement I. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(e) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics courses.

(1) Advanced Biotechnology. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §130.364 of this title (relating to Advanced Biotechnology (One Credit)). Recommended prerequisites: Biology and Chemistry. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(2) Scientific Research and Design. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §130.372 of this title (relating to Scientific Research and Design (One Science Credit)). Prerequisite: one unit of high school science. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12. Students may repeat this course with different course content for up to three credits.

(3) Engineering Design and Problem Solving. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §130.373 of this title (relating to Engineering Design and Problem Solving (One Science Credit)). Prerequisites: Geometry, Algebra II, Chemistry, and Physics. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(f) Concurrent enrollment in college courses.

(1) General requirements. Students shall be awarded at least one-half credit for each semester of successful completion of a college course in which the student is concurrently enrolled while in high school.

(2) Content requirements. In order for students to receive state graduation credit for concurrent enrollment courses, content requirements must meet or exceed the essential knowledge and skills in a given course.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.72 adopted to be effective July 12, 2010, 35 TexReg 6070