Texas Administrative Code Title 19

Education: As effective August 6, 2010

Chapter 121

Subchapter A

§121.1: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Health Science Technology Education, Coherent Sequence

The provisions of this chapter shall supersede §75.84 of this title (relating to Health Occupations Education) beginning September 1, 1998.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.1 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.2: Introduction to Health Science Technology (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) To pursue a career in health care, students should know how to learn, reason, think critically, make decisions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Students should understand that quality health care depends on the ability to work well with others.

(2) The health care industry is comprised of diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems that function individually and collaboratively to provide comprehensive health care. Students should understand the employment opportunities, technology, and safety requirements of each system. Students are expected to learn the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a health career through further education and/or employment.

(3) Professional integrity in health care is dependent on acceptance of ethical and legal responsibilities. Students are expected to understand their ethical and legal responsibilities, limitations, and the implications of their actions.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student applies math, science, English language arts, and social studies in health science. The student is expected to:

(A) add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers in health-related problems;

(B) apply data from tables, charts, and graphs to estimate and find solutions to health-related problems;

(C) organize, write, and compile ideas into reports and summaries;

(D) make contributions relevant to topics in group discussions;

(E) survey and research the historical significance of health care;

(F) describe the impact of health services on the economy;

(G) identify age and cultural influences that have impacted contemporary aspects of health care delivery;

(H) identify human needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs;

(I) describe the stages of development related to the life span; and

(J) identify the concepts of health and wellness through the life span.

(2) The student knows ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities of health care professionals. The student is expected to:

(A) compare published professional codes of ethics;

(B) identify responsible and ethical behavior;

(C) identify ethical issues related to health care delivery;

(D) describe the consequences of breech of confidentiality;

(E) research and describe laws governing the health care industry; and

(F) differentiate between malpractice and negligence.

(3) The student knows characteristics of a health care worker. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal characteristics of a health care worker from the perspective of a consumer; and

(B) select effective health and wellness routines for health care workers, including stress management.

(4) The student knows the importance of the health care team in providing client care. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the concept of teaming to provide quality health care; and

(B) explain the role of professional organizations in the preparation and governance of credentialed health care workers.

(5) The student knows the leadership skills necessary to function in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) identify traits of a leader; and

(B) demonstrate skills, characteristics, and responsibilities of leaders and group members.

(6) The student identifies the systems related to health occupations. The student is expected to:

(A) review health careers within the therapeutic, diagnostic, informational, and environmental systems;

(B) identify the collaborative role of team members between systems to deliver quality health care; and

(C) identify technology utilized in each of the four systems.

(7) The student knows the systems that finance health care in a free enterprise society. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast hospice, health maintenance organizations, preferred provider organizations, and other care providers;

(B) research and describe escalating health care costs and identify individual responsibility in cost containment; and

(C) research and describe industry efforts in cost containment, energy conservation, and accountability practices.

(8) The student uses technology to access, process, and retrieve information. The student is expected to:

(A) utilize keyboarding skills to access, process, and retrieve information; and

(B) describe technology applications in the health care industry.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.2 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.3: Health Science Technology I (One to Two Credits)

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. The recommended prerequisites for this course are Introduction to Health Science Technology and Biology, as a prerequisite or concurrent enrollment.

(b) Introduction.

(1) To pursue a career in health care, students should know how to learn, reason, think critically, make decisions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Students should understand that quality health care depends on the ability to work well with others.

(2) The health care industry is comprised of diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems that function individually and collaboratively to provide comprehensive health care. Students should understand the employment opportunities, technology, and safety requirements of each system. Students are expected to learn the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a health career through further education and/or employment.

(3) Professional integrity in health care is dependent on acceptance of ethical and legal responsibilities. Students are expected to understand their ethical and legal responsibilities, limitations, and the implications of their actions.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student applies math, science, English language arts, and social studies in health science. The student is expected to:

(A) convert units between systems of measurements;

(B) use measurement functions for client assessment;

(C) interpret technical material related to health care;

(D) demonstrate use of precise language to clearly communicate ideas;

(E) plan and prepare effective oral presentations;

(F) describe biological and chemical processes that maintain homeostasis;

(G) identify principles of body mechanics and movement;

(H) analyze forces and the effects of movement, torque, tension, and elasticity on the human body;

(I) analyze the impact of local, state, and national government on the health care industry; and

(J) compare and contrast strategies used by various cultures to solve problems related to health.

(2) The student knows verbal and nonverbal communication skills. The student is expected to:

(A) identify components of effective communication;

(B) identify barriers to effective communication;

(C) evaluate the use of verbal and nonverbal language in a variety of health care scenarios;

(D) adapt communication to the needs of the individual in a diverse society;

(E) develop communication skills that are responsive rather than reactive;

(F) accurately interpret, transcribe, and communicate medical vocabulary; and

(G) demonstrate use of appropriate telecommunications technology.

(3) The student documents and archives client records. The student is expected to:

(A) review the structure and composition of client records;

(B) compile and record client data; and

(C) demonstrate the ability to chart and graph.

(4) The student knows professional characteristics as defined by the health care industry. The student is expected to:

(A) identify professional characteristics of health care providers; and

(B) describe employer expectations such as communication, organizational skills, and productive work habits.

(5) The student knows career options and the preparation necessary for employment in the health care industry. The student is expected to:

(A) locate, evaluate, and interpret career options and employment information;

(B) demonstrate the procedures necessary to seek and secure employment;

(C) demonstrate step-by-step procedures for problem solving;

(D) predict the impact of career decisions; and

(E) anticipate and adapt to changing employment situations.

(6) The student knows the skills necessary to maintain employment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify employer expectations of punctuality, attendance, and time management;

(B) identify industry safety standards; and

(C) demonstrate appropriate actions in emergency situations.

(7) The student knows ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize ethical behavior standards;

(B) identify ethical considerations resulting from technological advances;

(C) describe the effects of unethical practices on consumers;

(D) demonstrate the principles of confidentiality;

(E) identify legal requirements and scope of practice for students in health care delivery;

(F) recognize noncompliance and its effects; and

(G) identify issues related to malpractice, negligence, and liability.

(8) The student knows client's rights and choices. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate situations related to client autonomy;

(B) review documentation related to client's rights and choices; and

(C) develop awareness of age, cultural, and religious diversity as it relates to client care.

(9) The student identifies the leadership skills necessary to function in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate leadership skills for goal setting and team building; and

(B) demonstrate the ability to conduct effective meetings according to Robert's Rules of Order, Newly Revised.

(10) The student uses standard precautions to control the spread of infection. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the cycle of the infectious process;

(B) identify guidelines of standard precautions; and

(C) demonstrate skills related to infection control.

(11) The student knows the importance of maintaining a safe environment and eliminating hazardous situations. The student is expected to:

(A) identify regulatory agencies such as Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA);

(B) identify legislation that mandates an employer's obligation to provide a safe workplace;

(C) identify fire prevention and safety practices;

(D) recognize hazardous materials and situations;

(E) demonstrate safe use of chemicals and equipment;

(F) identify, demonstrate, and practice principles of body mechanics; and

(G) practice personal and client safety.

(12) The student knows the technology utilized in the diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems. The student is expected to:

(A) identify equipment utilized in each of the four systems;

(B) utilize appropriate equipment in the delivery of health care services; and

(C) recognize and report equipment malfunctions.

(13) The student demonstrates multi-competent health care worker knowledge and skills. The student is expected to:

(A) assess client status and accurately determine vital signs;

(B) move, lift, and transport clients safely;

(C) manage client hygiene;

(D) monitor client nutrition;

(E) respond to emergencies appropriately;

(F) demonstrate skills related to activities of daily living;

(G) demonstrate skills associated with rehabilitative care such as range of motion, positioning, and ambulation;

(H) evaluate techniques in dealing with stressful situations, such as trauma and death and dying;

(I) demonstrate skills in caring for the dying patient;

(J) manage client information appropriately; and

(K) evaluate environmental management procedures.

(14) The student uses technology to access, process, and retrieve information. The student is expected to:

(A) enhance keyboarding skills and correspond using electronic messages;

(B) identify the processes for collection and dissemination of health care data; and

(C) predict changes in technology.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.3 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.4: Health Science Technology II (Two to Four Credits)

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12. Recommended prerequisites for this course are Health Science Technology I, Biology, and Chemistry.

(b) Introduction.

(1) To pursue a career in health care, students should know how to learn, reason, think critically, make decisions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Students should understand that quality health care depends on the ability to work well with others.

(2) The health care industry is comprised of diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems that function individually and collaboratively to provide comprehensive health care. Students should understand the employment opportunities, technology, and safety requirements of each system. Students are expected to learn the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a health career through further education and/or employment.

(3) Professional integrity in health care is dependent on acceptance of ethical and legal responsibilities. Students are expected to understand their ethical and legal responsibilities, limitations, and the implications of their actions.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student applies math, science, English language arts, and social studies in health science. The student is expected to:

(A) perform mathematical calculations appropriate to work-based learning situations;

(B) use measurement functions in multiple-step conversion problems;

(C) communicate using medical terminology;

(D) express ideas in writing and develop skills in documentation;

(E) interpret complex technical material related to health care;

(F) use multiple methods of presenting information, such as client teaching;

(G) assess biological and chemical processes that maintain homeostasis;

(H) associate the disease process with changes in homeostasis;

(I) identify the changes in structure and function due to trauma and disease;

(J) research and describe community health care resources; and

(K) research and describe the role of an international society in the prevention and containment of disease.

(2) The student uses verbal and non-verbal communication skills. The student is expected to:

(A) use language appropriate to the situation;

(B) evaluate client's' ability to understand communication;

(C) identify language barriers and select alternative methods of communication;

(D) adapt communication to accommodate individual needs;

(E) practice verbal and nonverbal skills when communicating with persons with hearing and vision loss; and

(F) utilize telecommunication technology with appropriate supervision.

(3) The student documents and archives data. The student is expected to:

(A) retrieve information from client records;

(B) report client information according to facility protocol; and

(C) review and summarize technical reports.

(4) The student knows career options and the preparation necessary for employment in the health care industry. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe specific health careers;

(B) demonstrate procedures to gain employment;

(C) identify entrepreneurship opportunities in the free enterprise system; and

(D) practice personal finance management.

(5) The student solves problems and makes decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate step-by-step procedures for problem solving;

(B) predict the impact of decisions on client care; and

(C) demonstrate appropriate response to emergency situations.

(6) The student knows the knowledge and skills necessary to maintain employment. The student is expected to:

(A) comply with specific industry standards related to safety and substance abuse;

(B) fulfill attendance and punctuality expectations;

(C) articulate understanding of assignment;

(D) utilize medical vocabulary specific to the health care setting;

(E) apply principles of time management when performing tasks; and

(F) fulfill industry expectations related to professional conduct.

(7) The student knows ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ethical dilemmas such as Do Not Resuscitate (DNR);

(B) comply with ethical behavior standards;

(C) comply with industry standards of confidentiality;

(D) comply with protocol of the health care setting;

(E) comply with legal requirements and function within the designated scope of practice; and

(F) comply with the client's Bill of Rights.

(8) The student knows the leadership skills necessary to function in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) identify leadership skills of health care professionals;

(B) research and describe the role of professional organizations in maintaining standards;

(C) participate in group dynamics;

(D) identify consensus-building techniques;

(E) use problem-solving skills to resolve conflicts;

(F) identify procedures for due process; and

(G) use parliamentary procedure to conduct meetings.

(9) The student uses standard precautions to control the spread of infection. The student is expected to:

(A) comply with standard precautions; and

(B) practice prescribed techniques to prevent nosocomial infections.

(10) The student maintains a safe environment to prevent hazardous situations. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and practice fire prevention according to facility protocol;

(B) maintain personal and client safety;

(C) apply principles of body mechanics to minimize personal and client injury;

(D) observe and report unsafe conditions; and

(E) follow protocol related to hazardous materials and situations.

(11) The student knows wellness strategies for the prevention of disease. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe wellness strategies for the prevention of disease;

(B) identify the availability of health screenings and examinations; and

(C) research and describe alternative health practices and therapies.

(12) The student demonstrates skills in monitoring client health status during therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) observe client during care and procedures;

(B) accurately measure and report client vital signs and other indicators of health status; and

(C) record client health status according to facility protocol.

(13) The student follows the steps of diagnostic procedural set-ups. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and collect appropriate supplies and equipment necessary for a procedure;

(B) explain procedure to the client;

(C) maintain and calibrate equipment to monitor quality; and

(D) report abnormal results and take action.

(14) The student demonstrates information management skills. The student is expected to:

(A) use technology to access, process and retrieve information with appropriate supervision;

(B) perform admission, discharge, and transfer functions;

(C) accurately complete a variety of informational forms; and

(D) perform data entry skills to process client information.

(15) The student maintains a clean and healthy environment. The student is expected to:

(A) monitor, observe, and report unsafe environmental conditions;

(B) prevent the spread of pathogens by cleaning, disinfecting, or sterilizing;

(C) maintain a sanitary food service environment and practice proper food handling procedures;

(D) conform to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards and other regulatory guidelines; and

(E) practice recycling and waste management for containment costs and environmental protection.

(16) The student demonstrates knowledge and skills specific to an occupational system. The student is expected to:

(A) know information specific to occupational areas; and

(B) perform occupationally-specific skills according to industry standards.

(17) The student identifies equipment used in the health care industry. The student is expected to:

(A) identify electronic equipment used in diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems;

(B) use appropriate equipment in the delivery of health care services; and

(C) demonstrate problem-solving skills to repair, maintain, and operate equipment consistent with level of training.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.4 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.5: Health Science Technology III (One to Two Credits)

(a) General requirements. This course may be offered for one or two semesters. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12. The recommended prerequisite for this course is Health Science Technology II.

(b) Introduction.

(1) To pursue a career in health care, students should know how to learn, reason, think critically, make decisions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Students should understand that quality health care depends on the ability to work well with others.

(2) The health care industry is comprised of diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems that function individually and collaboratively to provide comprehensive health care. Students should understand the employment opportunities, technology, and safety requirements of each system. Students are expected to learn the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a health career through further education and/or employment.

(3) Professional integrity in health care is dependent on acceptance of ethical and legal responsibilities. Students are expected to understand their ethical and legal responsibilities, limitations, and the implications of their actions.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student applies math, science, English language arts, and social sciences in health science. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret data from various sources to make conclusions;

(B) compile information from a variety of sources to create a technical report;

(C) research, write, and present a technical report;

(D) plan, prepare, and deliver a presentation;

(E) identify the environmental factors that affect homeostasis;

(F) observe and relate anatomical structure to physiological functions;

(G) identify atypical anatomy and physiology;

(H) use the scientific method to prepare clinical case studies;

(I) compare and contrast community health issues of the United States with other countries; and

(J) compare and contrast various health care reform plans.

(2) The student uses verbal and non-verbal communication skills. The student is expected to:

(A) accurately describe observations and procedures related to client care;

(B) demonstrate advanced communication skills to provide quality client care; and

(C) identify barriers to communication and take measures to minimize their effects.

(3) The student knows the knowledge and skills necessary to maintain employment. The student is expected to:

(A) monitor and evaluate his/her own performance to ensure continuous improvement;

(B) adjust career goals based on personal interests and clinical experiences;

(C) describe the steps necessary for entrepreneurship in a free enterprise system;

(D) identify and follow procedures for advancement, resignation, or relocation;

(E) transfer knowledge and skills to new situations and apply problem-solving strategies;

(F) demonstrate proficiency in medical terminology; and

(G) update skills to enhance employability.

(4) The student knows ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A) practice ethical behavior standards;

(B) comply with industry standards of confidentiality;

(C) comply with protocol and legal requirements and perform within the designated scope of practice; and

(D) review court cases related to professional liability and ethics.

(5) The student knows the importance of functioning as a health care team member. The student is expected to:

(A) participate in team teaching;

(B) refine consensus-building techniques;

(C) manage conflicts using peer mediation, problem-solving, and negotiation skills; and

(D) identify leadership opportunities in the community.

(6) The student maintains a safe environment to prevent hazardous situations. The student is expected to:

(A) comply with standard precautions;

(B) teach principles of body mechanics to others;

(C) develop a fire prevention plan;

(D) respond to emergency situations consistent with level of training;

(E) participate in a disaster drill; and

(F) comply with regulatory standards and guidelines.

(7) The student demonstrates multi-competent health care worker knowledge and skills. The student is expected to:

(A) identify knowledge and skills that are transferable among occupations;

(B) predict client's needs for follow-up or alternative care;

(C) update skills to enhance employability; and

(D) identify emerging technologies in the health care industry.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.5 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

Subchapter B

§121.11: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Health Science Technology Education, Scientific

The provisions of this chapter shall supersede §75.84 of this title (relating to Health Occupations Education) beginning September 1, 1998.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.11 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.12: Scientific Research and Design (One Science Credit)

(a) General requirements. The prerequisite for this course is one unit of high school science. To receive credit in science, students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement identified in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and that science may not answer all questions.

(2) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(3) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world through questioning, observing and drawing conclusions. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that conclusions and models built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and, based on new discoveries, are constantly being changed to more closely reflect the physical world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student conducts laboratory investigations and fieldwork using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory investigations and fieldwork; and

(B) make wise choices in the conservation and use of resources and the disposal of materials.

(2) The student identifies scientific methods used during fieldwork and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring in various ways;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique hypotheses and theories as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(D) gather information about future careers using a variety of sources.

(4) The student knows how to formulate hypotheses to guide experimentation and data collection. The student is expected to:

(A) perform background research with respect to an investigative problem; and

(B) examine hypotheses generated to guide a research process, evaluating the merits and feasibility of the hypotheses.

(5) The student knows how to analyze published research. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the scientific methodology used by a researcher;

(B) examine a prescribed research design and identify dependent and independent variables;

(C) evaluate a prescribed research design to determine the purpose for each of the procedures performed; and

(D) compare the relationship of the hypothesis to the conclusion.

(6) The student knows how to develop and implement investigative designs. The student is expected to:

(A) interact and collaborate with scientific researchers and/or other members of the scientific community to complete a research project;

(B) identify and manipulate relevant variables within research situations;

(C) use a control in an experimental process; and

(D) design procedures to test hypotheses.

(7) The student knows how to collect, organize, and evaluate qualitative and quantitative data obtained through experimentation. The student is expected to:

(A) record observations and events as they occur within an investigation;

(B) acquire, manipulate, and analyze data using equipment and technology;

(C) construct data tables to organize information collected in an experiment; and

(D) evaluate data using statistical methods to recognize patterns, trends, and proportional relationships.

(8) The student knows how to synthesize valid conclusions from qualitative and quantitative data. The student is expected to:

(A) synthesize conclusions supported by research data;

(B) consider and communicate alternative explanations for observations and results; and

(C) identify limitations within the research process and provide recommendations for additional research.

(9) The student knows how to communicate conclusions clearly and concisely to an audience of professionals. The student is expected to:

(A) construct charts, tables, and graphs in facilitating data analysis and in communicating experimental results clearly and effectively using technology; and

(B) suggest alternative explanations from observations or trends evident within the data or from prompts provided by a review panel.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.12 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.13: Anatomy and Physiology of Human Systems (One Science Credit)

(a) General requirements. The prerequisites for this course are Biology and Chemistry. To receive credit in science, students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement identified in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and that science may not answer all questions.

(2) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(3) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world through questioning, observing and drawing conclusions. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that conclusions and models built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and, based on new discoveries, are constantly being changed to more closely reflect the physical world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student conducts laboratory investigations and fieldwork using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory investigations and in fieldwork; and

(B) make wise choices in the conservation and use of resources and the disposal of materials.

(2) The student uses scientific methods during fieldwork and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) make observations and measurements in collecting data in various ways;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique hypotheses and theories as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) make choices in selecting everyday products using scientific research findings;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) gather information about future careers using a variety of sources; and

(E) research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4) The student knows the energy needs of the human body and the processes through which these needs are fulfilled. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and explain the chemical reactions that provide energy for the body;

(B) identify the means, including the structure and function of the digestive system, by which energy is processed and stored within the body; and

(C) analyze the effects of energy deficiencies in malabsorption disorders such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and Crohn's disease.

(5) The student knows the responses of the human body to internal and external forces. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret normal and abnormal contractility conditions such as in edema, glaucoma, aneurysms, and hemorrhage;

(B) analyze and describe the effects of pressure, movement, torque, tension, and elasticity on the human body;

(C) conduct an investigation to determine causes and effects of force variance, and communicate findings;

(D) survey and report the uses of various diagnostic and therapeutic technologies; and

(E) explain how coordination of muscles, bones, and joints allows movement of the body.

(6) The student knows the body processes that maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and describe the integration of the chemical and physical processes, including equilibrium, temperature, pH balance, chemical reactions, passive and active transport, and biofeedback, that contribute to homeostasis; and

(B) predict the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis.

(7) The student knows the electrical conduction processes and interactions. The student is expected to:

(A) illustrate conduction systems such as nerve transmission or muscle stimulation;

(B) research and describe the therapeutic uses and effects of external sources of electricity on the body system; and

(C) evaluate the application of advanced technologies such as electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), bionics, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and cardioversion.

(8) The student knows the body's transport systems. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the physical, chemical, and biological properties of transport systems including circulatory, respiratory, and excretory;

(B) identify and describe the factors that alter the normal functions of transport systems; and

(C) compare the interactions among the transport systems.

(9) The student knows environmental factors that affect the human body. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the effects of environmental factors, such as climate, pollution, radioactivity, chemicals, electromagnetic fields, pathogens, carcinogens, and drugs on body systems; and

(B) research and evaluate measures to minimize harmful environmental factors on body systems.

(10) The student knows how to compare anatomical structures to physiological functions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems such as integumentary, reproductive, nervous, and digestive;

(B) evaluate the cause and effect of disease, trauma and congenital defects on the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and systems;

(C) research and evaluate technological advances and limitations in the treatment of system disorders; and

(D) identify characteristics of the aging process on body systems.

(11) The student knows the process of reproduction, growth, and development. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe embryological development of tissues, organs, and systems;

(B) identify the functions of the male and female reproductive systems; and

(C) summarize the human development cycle.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.13 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.14: Medical Microbiology (One-Half Science Credit)

(a) General requirements. The prerequisites are Biology and Chemistry or Biology and concurrent enrollment in Chemistry. To receive credit in science, students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement identified in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and that science may not answer all questions.

(2) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(3) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world through questioning, observing and drawing conclusions. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that conclusions and models built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and, based on new discoveries, are constantly being changed to more closely reflect the physical world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student conducts laboratory investigations and fieldwork using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices in laboratory investigations and in fieldwork, including clinical settings, while complying with standard precautions;

(B) make wise choices in the conservation and use of resources and the disposal of materials; and

(C) identify regulatory agencies and comply with standards and guidelines.

(2) The student uses scientific methods in fieldwork and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including but not limited to asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) make observations and measurements in collecting data;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique hypotheses and theories as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) make choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) gather information about future careers using a variety of sources;

(E) solve calculations involving probability, dilutions, conversions, and exponential growth;

(F) determine mass, volume, and density using measurement functions; and

(G) research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4) The student knows the relationship between microbes and health maintenance. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the historical development of microbiology as it relates to health care;

(B) identify chemical processes of microorganisms;

(C) identify the morphology and characteristics of microorganisms using a variety of microbiological techniques;

(D) determine the factors required for microbial reproduction and growth; and

(E) identify beneficial microbes that colonize the human body.

(5) The student knows the role of microbes in infectious diseases. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the infectious process;

(B) classify microorganisms using a dichotomous key;

(C) identify diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, rickettsias, and helminths;

(D) identify the body's immune response and defenses against infection; and

(E) evaluate the effects of anti-microbial agents.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.14 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.15: Pathophysiology (One-Half Science Credit)

(a) General requirements. The prerequisites for this course are Biology, Chemistry, and Anatomy, and Physiology of Human Systems. To receive credit in science, students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement identified in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and that science may not answer all questions.

(2) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(3) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world through questioning, observing and drawing conclusions. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that conclusions and models built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and, based on new discoveries, are constantly being changed to more closely reflect the physical world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student conducts laboratory investigations and fieldwork using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory investigations and in fieldwork; and

(B) make wise choices in the conservation and use of resources and the disposal of materials.

(2) The student uses scientific methods in fieldwork and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including but not limited to asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) make observations and measurements in collecting data;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique hypotheses and theories as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) gather information about future careers using a variety of sources; and

(E) research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4) The student knows the mechanisms of pathology. The student is expected to:

(A) identify biological and chemical processes at the cellular level;

(B) analyze how the body attempts to maintain homeostasis when changes occur;

(C) detect changes resulting from mutations and neoplasms by examining cells, tissues, organs, and systems;

(D) identify factors that contribute to disease, such as age, gender, environment, lifestyles, and heredity; and

(E) evaluate stages in the progression of disease.

(5) The student knows the process of pathogenesis. The student is expected to:

(A) identify pathogenic organisms using technology;

(B) illustrate the stages of pathogenesis including incubation period, symptomatic period, and exacerbation or remission;

(C) analyze the body's natural defense systems against infection such as barriers, the inflammatory response, and the immune response; and

(D) evaluate the effects of chemical agents, environmental pollution, and trauma on the disease process.

(6) The student knows a variety of human diseases. The student is expected to:

(A) research and report on the nature of diseases according to etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options;

(B) research and report advanced technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of disease;

(C) identify and describe congenital disorders and childhood diseases; and

(D) research and explain how diseases affect multiple body systems.

(7) The student knows the effects of disease prevention and control. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate public-health issues related to asepsis, isolation, immunization, and quarantine;

(B) analyze the effects of stress and aging on the body;

(C) evaluate treatment options for diseases;

(D) research and describe diseases that threaten world health and propose intervention strategies; and

(E) develop a plan for personal health and wellness.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.15 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

Subchapter C

§121.21: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Health Science Technology Education, Integrated Occupational

The provisions of this chapter shall supersede §75.84 of this title (relating to Health Occupations Education) beginning September 1, 1998.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.21 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.22: Medical Terminology (One-Half Credit)

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) To pursue a career in health care, students should know how to learn, reason, think critically, make decisions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Students should understand that quality health care depends on the ability to work well with others.

(2) The health care industry is comprised of diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems that function individually and collaboratively to provide comprehensive health care. Students should understand the employment opportunities, technology, and safety requirements of each system. Students are expected to learn the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a health career through further education and/or employment.

(3) Professional integrity in health care is dependent on acceptance of ethical and legal responsibilities. Students are expected to understand their ethical and legal responsibilities, limitations, and the implications of their actions.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student knows the terminology related to health care. The student is expected to:

(A) identify abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols;

(B) identify the basic structure of medical words;

(C) practice word-building skills;

(D) research the origins of eponyms;

(E) use directional terms and anatomical planes related to body structure; and

(F) accurately spell and define occupationally specific terms relating to body systems, surgical and diagnostic procedures, diseases, and treatments.

(2) The student knows how to communicate using the terminology applicable to the health care industry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate verbal and written strategies to meet the demands of the speaker, audience, purpose, and occasion;

(B) correctly pronounce medical terms;

(C) employ increasingly precise language to communicate;

(D) evaluate the use of verbal and written language in a variety of health care scenarios; and

(E) read and interpret technical material related to health care.

(3) The student uses available resources. The student is expected to:

(A) use medical and dental dictionaries and multimedia resources;

(B) use resources to interpret technical materials; and

(C) utilize electronic media such as the Internet and other telecommunications, with appropriate supervision.

(4) The student appropriately uses health care terms. The student is expected to:

(A) accurately interpret, transcribe, and communicate vocabulary related to health care;

(B) translate medical terms to conversational language to facilitate communication; and

(C) report observations using medical terminology.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.22 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.23: Gerontology (One-Half Credit)

(a) General requirements. The recommended prerequisite for this course is Health Science Technology I. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) To pursue a career in health care, students should know how to learn, reason, think critically, make decisions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Students should understand that quality health care depends on the ability to work well with others.

(2) The health care industry is comprised of diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems that function individually and collaboratively to provide comprehensive health care. Students should understand the employment opportunities, technology, and safety requirements of each system. Students are expected to learn the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a health career through further education and/or employment.

(3) Professional integrity in health care is dependent on acceptance of ethical and legal responsibilities. Students are expected to understand their ethical and legal responsibilities, limitations, and the implications of their actions.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student applies math, science, English language arts, and social studies in health science. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe myths regarding aging;

(B) review a variety of cultural responses to aging;

(C) identify the sociological impact of a "graying" America on health care delivery by performing an analysis of predictions into the 21st century;

(D) research and describe the social services available to older adults;

(E) identify the psychological aspects of aging including coping, adaptation, depression, and suicide; and

(F) describe individual responses to death and dying and review the Dying Person's Bill of Rights.

(2) The student identifies the aging process. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the patterns of change in the aging individual;

(B) identify physiological changes related to disease, environmental factors, and chronological age;

(C) identify the impact of age on outcomes of frequently occurring diseases;

(D) compare and contrast genetic and non-genetic theories of aging;

(E) identify the effects of aging on intelligence, learning, and memory;

(F) identify the nutritional needs of older adults; and

(G) identify pharmaceutical concerns with older persons including drug interactions from multiple medications.

(3) The student uses communication skills appropriate for geriatrics. The student is expected to:

(A) learn vocabulary associated with geriatrics;

(B) communicate with older adults and their families;

(C) interpret verbal and nonverbal messages and provide appropriate feedback;

(D) adapt communication to the needs of the aging person who has sensory or mental impairment; and

(E) interpret technical material related to gerontology.

(4) The student knows ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A) identify resident's rights and choices;

(B) review ethical dilemmas related to older adults; and

(C) comply with ethical behavior standards.

(5) The student maintains a safe environment to prevent hazardous situations. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and practice fire prevention according to facility protocol;

(B) identify protocol to manage hazardous materials;

(C) maintain personal and resident safety in the clinical setting;

(D) observe and report unsafe environmental conditions; and

(E) apply principles of body mechanics to maintain personal and resident safety.

(6) The student uses standard precautions to control the spread of infection. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate skills related to infection control;

(B) practice isolation procedures; and

(C) comply with standard precautions.

(7) The student demonstrates the knowledge and skills of a geriatric health care worker. The student is expected to:

(A) assess residents and accurately determine vital signs;

(B) move, lift, and transport residents safely;

(C) assist residents with ambulation aids;

(D) monitor resident nutrition;

(E) manage resident hygiene;

(F) comply with facility protocol for residents' comfort;

(G) maintain resident environment;

(H) respond to emergency situations such as strains and bruises, vomiting and aspirations, syncope, falls, hemorrhage and seizures;

(I) accurately record and report resident information;

(J) care for the dying resident; and

(K) identify skills related to post-mortem care.

(8) The student demonstrates how to prepare for employment in long-term care or other health care settings. The student is expected to:

(A) identify requirements established for certification; and

(B) identify advantages of certification.

(9) The student identifies how to function as a team member in a variety of health care settings. The student is expected to:

(A) participate as a team member; and

(B) use coping skills and practice stress management.

(10) The student identifies electronic equipment used in the health care industry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate equipment in the delivery of health care services;

(B) recognize and report equipment malfunctions; and

(C) maintain and operate equipment consistent with level of training.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.23 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.24: Clinical Nutrition (One-Half Credit)

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12. The recommended prerequisite for this course is Health Science Technology I.

(b) Introduction.

(1) To pursue a career in health care, students should know how to learn, reason, think critically, make decisions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Students should understand that quality health care depends on the ability to work well with others.

(2) The health care industry is comprised of diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems that function individually and collaboratively to provide comprehensive health care. Students should understand the employment opportunities, technology, and safety requirements of each system. Students are expected to learn the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a health career through further education and/or employment.

(3) Professional integrity in health care is dependent on acceptance of ethical and legal responsibilities. Students are expected to understand their ethical and legal responsibilities, limitations, and the implications of their actions.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student applies math, science, English language arts, and social studies in health science. The student is expected to:

(A) use measurement functions and perform mathematical calculations;

(B) interpret charts and graphs and technical material;

(C) identify biological and chemical processes;

(D) observe and relate anatomical structure to physiological functions, including the disease process;

(E) research and describe the impact of nutrition on world health;

(F) describe the impact of government on nutrition programs and services;

(G) research and describe the historical and future availability of food;

(H) identify nutritional practices of various cultures and age groups; and

(I) identify causes of malnutrition.

(2) The student uses verbal and non-verbal communication skills. The student is expected to:

(A) adapt communication to the needs of the client;

(B) demonstrate ability in charting and graphing; and

(C) compile, interpret, and disseminate client information.

(3) The student demonstrates how to gain employment in clinical nutrition. The student is expected to:

(A) locate, evaluate, and interpret career opportunities;

(B) identify the role of the nutritional team;

(C) fulfill attendance, punctuality, and time management expectations; and

(D) comply with industry standards related to safety and substance abuse.

(4) The student knows ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A) comply with standards of ethical behavior and legal responsibility; and

(B) comply with industry standards of confidentiality.

(5) The student maintains a safe environment to prevent hazardous situations. The student is expected to:

(A) practice personal and client safety;

(B) review the cycle of the infectious process;

(C) comply with standard precautions;

(D) demonstrate safe use of chemicals and equipment;

(E) recognize hazardous materials;

(F) identify and practice fire prevention according to facility protocol;

(G) practice principles of body mechanics;

(H) identify regulatory agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and public health departments; and

(I) practice compliance of regulatory standards and guidelines used in food services.

(6) The student assesses and evaluates nutritional practices. The student is expected to:

(A) select and analyze nutritional information;

(B) determine nutritional needs of various age groups;

(C) research and describe nutritional preferences of various cultures;

(D) recognize nutritional needs of clients;

(E) research and describe nutritional and eating disorders;

(F) identify the types of therapeutic diets; and

(G) describe food additives and food allergies.

(7) The student demonstrates occupationally specific knowledge and skills of the health care worker in the area of nutrition. The student is expected to:

(A) identify alternative methods of nutrition;

(B) identify the effects of chemotherapy and radiation on client nutrition;

(C) identify nutritional needs during pregnancy and lactation;

(D) demonstrate skills in the assessment of nutritional needs; and

(E) prepare, implement, and evaluate therapeutic care plans.

(8) The student identifies equipment and technology for nutritional services. The student is expected to:

(A) use technology to access, process, and retrieve information; and

(B) use appropriate electronic equipment.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.24 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.25: Pharmacology (One-Half Credit)

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12. The recommended prerequisites for this course are Health Science Technology I, Biology, and Chemistry.

(b) Introduction.

(1) To pursue a career in health care, students should know how to learn, reason, think critically, make decisions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Students should understand that quality health care depends on the ability to work well with others.

(2) The health care industry is comprised of diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems that function individually and collaboratively to provide comprehensive health care. Students should understand the employment opportunities, technology, and safety requirements of each system. Students are expected to learn the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a health career through further education and/or employment.

(3) Professional integrity in health care is dependent on acceptance of ethical and legal responsibilities. Students are expected to understand their ethical and legal responsibilities, limitations, and the implications of their actions.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student applies math, science, English language arts, and social studies in health science. The student is expected to:

(A) convert units between systems of measurement;

(B) use measurement functions such as calculations of dosages;

(C) interpret technical material related to pharmacology;

(D) investigate biological and chemical processes in various age groups;

(E) analyze the impact of pharmaceuticals on the costs of health care; and

(F) research and describe the impact of pharmaceuticals on society.

(2) The student identifies career options and the preparation necessary for employment in pharmacology. The student is expected to:

(A) identify career options related to pharmacology;

(B) define the role of the pharmacy team; and

(C) research and describe emerging pharmaceutical careers, such as biotechnology medicine.

(3) The student knows ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities as related to pharmacology. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and describe ethical behavior standards;

(B) describe the effects of unethical practices on consumers;

(C) identify the principles of confidentiality;

(D) identify legal requirements and scope of practice;

(E) evaluate the effects of noncompliance;

(F) research and describe issues of malpractice, negligence, and liability; and

(G) describe situations related to client's rights and choices.

(4) The student maintains a safe environment to prevent hazardous situations. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and practice fire prevention;

(B) recognize hazardous materials;

(C) demonstrate safe use of chemicals and equipment;

(D) practice personal safety; and

(E) identify regulatory agencies such as Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

(5) The student demonstrates the knowledge and skills related to pharmacology. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate use of drug references including Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR);

(B) identify drug names, classifications, actions and interactions;

(C) identify indications and contraindications of drugs;

(D) identify side effects, toxic effects, and adverse reactions of drugs;

(E) identify routes of administrations;

(F) compare and contrast Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmaceuticals to alternative medicines; and

(G) accurately interpret, transcribe, and communicate vocabulary.

(6) The student identifies technology used in pharmacology. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the technology utilized in a variety of health care settings; and

(B) use technology to access, process, and retrieve information with appropriate supervision.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.25 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.26: Mental Health (One-Half Credit)

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12. The recommended prerequisites for this course are Health Science Technology I, Biology, and Chemistry.

(b) Introduction.

(1) To pursue a career in health care, students should know how to learn, reason, think critically, make decisions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Students should understand that quality health care depends on the ability to work well with others.

(2) The health care industry is comprised of diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems that function individually and collaboratively to provide comprehensive health care. Students should understand the employment opportunities, technology, and safety requirements of each system. Students are expected to learn the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a health career through further education and/or employment.

(3) Professional integrity in health care is dependent on acceptance of ethical and legal responsibilities. Students are expected to understand their ethical and legal responsibilities, limitations, and the implications of their actions.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student applies math, science, English language arts, and social studies in health science. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the use of verbal and nonverbal language in a variety of mental health scenarios;

(B) describe anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the nervous system;

(C) identify societal perspectives related to mental health;

(D) identify the physiological effects of stress and aging;

(E) research and describe the psychological aspects of health and wellness across the life span;

(F) identify socioeconomic factors that influence mental health and care;

(G) identify social services such as drug dependency rehabilitation centers;

(H) identify maladaptive conditions such as paranoia, schizophrenia, and aggression; and

(I) research and describe treatment options.

(2) The student uses verbal and nonverbal communication skills. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret verbal and nonverbal messages and adapt communication to the needs of the individual;

(B) use listening skills and techniques to minimize communication barriers; and

(C) demonstrate communication skills that are responsive rather than reactive.

(3) The student identifies career options and the preparation necessary for employment in mental health. The student is expected to:

(A) identify career opportunities related to mental health;

(B) practice the concept of teaming;

(C) predict the consequences of decisions;

(D) demonstrate techniques of peer mediation, problem solving, and negotiation;

(E) accurately interpret, transcribe, and communicate medical vocabulary.

(4) The student knows the ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities related to mental health. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ethical practices;

(B) practice the principles of confidentiality;

(C) research and describe legal aspects and issues of malpractice, negligence, and liability;

(D) identify designated scope of practice of professionals;

(E) define client rights and choices;

(F) review case studies related to client rights and choices;

(G) identify circumstances that alter client rights;

(H) review legislation that effects standards of client care; and

(I) identify regulatory agencies such as the Mental Health and Mental Retardation Agency.

(5) The student maintains a safe environment to prevent hazardous situations. The student is expected to:

(A) identify abusive situations;

(B) anticipate and adapt to changing situations;

(C) demonstrate appropriate actions in emergency situations; and

(D) practice personal and client safety.

(6) The student knows the technology related to information services. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the processes for collection and dissemination of health care data;

(B) identify equipment used in the delivery of mental health services; and

(C) use technology consistent with level of training.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.26 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

Subchapter D

§121.31: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Health Science Technology Education, Research

The provisions of this chapter shall supersede §75.84 of this title (relating to Health Occupations Education) beginning September 1, 1998.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.31 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.

§121.32: Health Science Technology Independent Study (One-Half to One Credit)

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grade 12. The recommended prerequisite for this course is Health Science Technology II.

(b) Introduction.

(1) To pursue a career in health care, students should know how to learn, reason, think critically, make decisions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Students should understand that quality health care depends on the ability to work well with others.

(2) The health care industry is comprised of diagnostic, therapeutic, informational, and environmental systems that function individually and collaboratively to provide comprehensive health care. Students should understand the employment opportunities, technology, and safety requirements of each system. Students are expected to learn the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a health career through further education and/or employment.

(3) Professional integrity in health care is dependent on acceptance of ethical and legal responsibilities. Students are expected to understand their ethical and legal responsibilities, limitations, and the implications of their actions.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student applies math, science, English language arts, and social studies in health science. The student is expected to:

(A) select an independent study project for personal enrichment and professional development;

(B) collaborate with an interdisciplinary team to develop a project;

(C) identify community, state, national, or international issues to select a project;

(D) conduct a project under the supervision of a mentor;

(E) use scientific methods of investigation;

(F) apply statistical concepts to analyze data, evaluate results, and draw conclusions;

(G) compile findings in a coherent and organized manner; and

(H) present the independent study project to an appropriate audience using a variety of technologies.

(2) The student uses verbal and nonverbal communication skills. The student is expected to:

(A) communicate with others to accomplish project goals;

(B) utilize a variety of resources to access, process, and collect data relevant to the project; and

(C) document the time and cost to accomplish the project goal.

(3) The student knows ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ethical challenges posed by factors such as cost containment, new and emerging technologies, and allocation of limited resources;

(B) meet expectations related to professional conduct; and

(C) review legal issues related to the project.

(4) The student participates as a team member to complete a project. The student is expected to:

(A) develop skills including consensus, negotiation, decision making, mediation, process analysis, and interviewing; and

(B) participate as a team member to accomplish the project goals.

(5) The student develops a project related to the health care systems. The student is expected to:

(A) identify systems to be used in an independent study project; and

(B) use systems resources to complete a project.

(6) The student identifies the systems that finance health care research in a free enterprise society. The student is expected to:

(A) identify economic issues related to health research; and

(B) identify economic factors associated with the project.

(7) The student uses technology needed to complete a project. The student is expected to:

(A) use technology resources to access, process, retrieve, and disseminate information with appropriate supervision; and

(B) use multimedia technology to present the project to an audience.

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §121.32 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5014.