Texas Administrative Code Title 19

Education: As effective August 6, 2010

Chapter 128

Subchapter A

§128.10: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Elementary, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) The provisions of §§128.11-128.16 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b) Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Attached Graphic

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §128.10 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1463

§128.11: Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report as well as other current and relevant research on Spanish literacy development. In Kindergarten, students engage in activities that build on their natural curiosity and prior knowledge to develop their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should be read to on a daily basis.

(2) Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B) Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C) The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D) The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Kindergarten as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how Spanish is written and printed. Students are expected to:

(A) recognize that spoken words can be represented by print for communication;

(B) identify upper- and lower-case letters;

(C) demonstrate the one-to-one correspondence between a spoken word and a printed word in text;

(D) recognize the difference between a letter and a printed word;

(E) recognize that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and demonstrate the awareness of word boundaries (e.g., through kinesthetic or tactile actions such as clapping and jumping);

(F) hold a book right side up, turn its pages correctly, and know that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right; and

(G) identify different parts of a book (e.g., front and back covers, title page).

(2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to:

(A) identify a sentence made up of a group of words;

(B) identify syllables in spoken words;

(C) orally generate rhymes in response to spoken words (e.g., "¿Qué rima con mesa?");

(D) distinguish orally presented rhyming pairs of words from non-rhyming pairs;

(E) recognize spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same initial sound (e.g., "Pepe Pecas pica papas");

(F) blend spoken phonemes to form syllables and words (e.g., /m/.../a/ says ma, ma-pa says "mapa");

(G) isolate the initial syllabic sound in spoken words (e.g., /pa/ta, /la/ta, /ra/ta); and

(H) separate spoken multi-syllabic words into two to three syllables (e.g., /to/ /ma/ /te/).

(3) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds and morphological analysis to decode written Spanish. Students are expected to:

(A) decode the five vowel sounds;

(B) decode syllables;

(C) use phonological knowledge to match sounds to individual letters and syllables, including hard and soft consonants such as "r," "c," and "g";

(D) decode the written "y" when used as a conjunction, as in "mamá y papá";

(E) become familiar with the concept that "h" is silent;

(F) become familiar with the digraphs /ch/, /rr/;

(G) become familiar with the concept that "ll" and "y" have the same sound (e.g., llave, ya);

(H) use knowledge of consonant/vowel sound relationships to decode syllables and words in text and independent of content (e.g., CV, VC, CVC, CVCV words); and

(I) recognize that new words are created when syllables are changed, added, or deleted.

(4) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A) predict what might happen next in text based on the cover, title, and illustrations; and

(B) ask and respond to questions about texts read aloud.

(5) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it correctly when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(B) become familiar with grade appropriate vocabulary including content and function words;

(C) recognize that compound words are made by putting two words together (e.g., saca + puntas = sacapuntas);

(D) identify and sort pictures of objects into conceptual categories (e.g., colors, shapes, textures); and

(E) use a picture dictionary to find words.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) identify elements of a story including setting, character, and key events;

(B) discuss the big idea (theme) of a well-known folktale or fable and connect it to personal experience;

(C) recognize sensory details; and

(D) recognize recurring phrases and characters in traditional fairy tales, lullabies, and folktales from various cultures.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to respond to rhythm and rhyme in poetry through identifying a regular beat and similarities in word sounds.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) retell a main event from a story read aloud; and

(B) describe characters in a story and the reasons for their actions.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic of an informational text heard.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text, and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the topic and details in expository text heard or read, referring to the words and/or illustrations;

(B) retell important facts in a text, heard or read;

(C) discuss the ways authors group information in text; and

(D) use titles and illustrations to make predictions about text.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow pictorial directions (e.g., recipes, science experiments); and

(B) identify the meaning of specific signs (e.g., traffic signs, warning signs).

(12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) identify different forms of media (e.g., advertisements, newspapers, radio programs); and

(B) identify techniques used in media (e.g., sound, movement).

(13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing through class discussion;

(B) develop drafts by sequencing the action or details in the story;

(C) revise drafts by adding details or sentences;

(D) edit drafts by leaving spaces between letters and words; and

(E) share writing with others.

(14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) dictate or write sentences to tell a story and put the sentences in chronological sequence; and

(B) write short poems.

(15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to dictate or write information for lists, captions, or invitations.

(16) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking (with adult assistance):

(i) verbs, including commands and past and future tenses when speaking;

(ii) nouns (singular/plural);

(iii) descriptive words;

(iv) prepositions and simple prepositional phrases appropriately when speaking or writing (e.g., en, de, por la tarde, en la mañana); and

(v) personal pronouns (e.g., yo, ellos);

(B) speak in complete sentences to communicate; and

(C) use complete simple sentences.

(17) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) form upper- and lower-case letters legibly using the basic conventions of print (left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression);

(B) capitalize the first letter in a sentence; and

(C) use punctuation at the beginning (when appropriate) and at the end of a sentence.

(18) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) use phonological knowledge to match sounds to individual letters or syllables;

(B) use letter-sound correspondences to spell mono- and multi-syllabic words;

(C) use knowledge of consonant/vowel sound relationships to spell syllables and words in text and independent of content (e.g., CV, ma; VC, un; VCV, oso; CVC, sol; CVCV, mesa);

(D) use "y" to represent /i/ when used as a conjunction (e.g. mamá y papá); and

(E) write one's own name.

(19) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) ask questions about topics of class-wide interest; and

(B) decide what sources or people in the classroom, school, library, or home can answer these questions.

(20) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) gather evidence from provided text sources; and

(B) use pictures in conjunction with writing when documenting research.

(21) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen attentively by facing speakers and asking questions to clarify information; and

(B) follow oral directions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

(22) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language.

(23) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns and speaking one at a time.

§128.12: Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report as well as other current and relevant research on Spanish literacy development. In first grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should write, read, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2) Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B) Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C) The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D) The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in Grade 1 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how Spanish is written and printed. Students are expected to:

(A) recognize that spoken words are represented in written Spanish by specific sequences of letters;

(B) identify upper- and lower-case letters;

(C) sequence the letters of the alphabet;

(D) recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization of first word, beginning and ending punctuation, the em dash to indicate dialogue);

(E) read texts by moving from top to bottom of the page and tracking words from left to right with return sweep; and

(F) identify the information that different parts of a book provide (e.g., title, author, illustrator, table of contents).

(2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to:

(A) orally generate a series of original rhyming words using a variety of endings (e.g., -ita, -osa, -ión);

(B) recognize the change in a spoken word when a specified syllable or phoneme is added, changed, or removed (e.g., "ma-lo" to "ma-sa"; "to-mo" to "co-mo");

(C) blend spoken phonemes to form syllables and words (e.g., sol, pato);

(D) distinguish orally presented rhyming pairs of words from non-rhyming pairs;

(E) identify syllables in spoken words, including diphthongs and hiatus (le-er, rí-o, quie-ro, na-die, ra-dio, sa-po); and

(F) separate spoken multi-syllabic words into two to four syllables (e.g., ra-na, má-qui-na, te-lé-fo-no).

(3) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds to decode written Spanish. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) decode the five vowel sounds;

(B) decode syllables;

(C) use phonological knowledge to match sounds to individual letters and syllables including hard and soft consonants such as "r," "c," and "g";

(D) decode the written "y" when used as a conjunction (e.g., "mamá y papá");

(E) decode words in context and in isolation by applying the knowledge of letter-sound relationships in different structures including:

(i) open syllable (e.g., CV, la; VCV, ala; CVCV, toma);

(ii) closed syllable (e.g., VC, un; CVC, mes);

(iii) consonant blends (e.g., bra/bra-zo; glo/glo-bo); and

(iv) consonant digraphs (e.g., ch/chi-le; ll/lla-ve; rr/pe-rro);

(F) decode words with the silent "h";

(G) decode words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in pingüino and agüita;

(H) decode words that have the same sounds represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela);

(I) identify the stressed syllable (sílaba tónica);

(J) decode words with an orthographic accent (e.g., "papá," "mamá"); and

(K) use knowledge of the meaning of base words to identify and read common compound words (e.g., sacapuntas, abrelata, salvavida).

(4) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A) confirm predictions about what will happen next in text by "reading the part that tells";

(B) ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts; and

(C) establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).

(5) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension.

(6) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) identify words that name actions (verbs) and words that name persons, places, or things (nouns);

(B) determine the meaning of compound words using knowledge of the meaning of their individual component words (e.g., paraguas);

(C) determine what words mean from how they are used in a sentence, either heard or read;

(D) identify and sort words into conceptual categories (e.g., opposites, living things); and

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) connect the meaning of a well-known story or fable to personal experiences; and

(B) explain the function of recurring phrases (e.g., "Había una vez" or "Colorín Colorado, este cuento se ha acabado") in traditional folk- and fairy tales.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to respond to and use rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) describe the plot (problem and solution) and retell a story's beginning, middle, and end with attention to the sequence of events; and

(B) describe characters in a story and the reasons for their actions and feelings.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to determine whether a story is true or a fantasy and explain why.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to recognize sensory details in literary text.

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time.

(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and explain the author's purpose in writing the text.

(14) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) restate the main idea, heard or read;

(B) identify important facts or details in text, heard or read;

(C) retell the order of events in a text by referring to the words and/or illustrations; and

(D) use text features (e.g., title, tables of contents, illustrations) to locate specific information in text.

(15) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow written multi-step directions with picture cues to assist with understanding; and

(B) explain the meaning of specific signs and symbols (e.g., map features).

(16) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) recognize different purposes of media (e.g., informational, entertainment) (with adult assistance); and

(B) identify techniques used in media (e.g., sound, movement).

(17) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing (e.g., drawing, sharing ideas, listing key ideas);

(B) develop drafts by sequencing ideas through writing sentences;

(C) revise drafts by adding or deleting a word, phrase, or sentence;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, punctuation, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E) publish and share writing with others.

(18) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write brief stories that include a beginning, middle, and end; and

(B) write short poems that convey sensory details.

(19) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write brief compositions about topics of interest to the student;

(B) write short letters that put ideas in a chronological or logical sequence and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C) write brief comments on literary or informational texts.

(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) verbs in the past, present, and future in the indicative mode (canto, canté);

(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive: verde, alto);

(iv) adverbs (e.g., time: before, next);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases ("por la mañana");

(vi) personal pronouns (e.g., yo, ellos); and

(vii) time-order transition words (e.g., primero, luego, después);

(B) speak in complete sentences with correct article-noun agreement (e.g., la pelota, el mapa, el agua, la mano, el águila); and

(C) identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Sra.).

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) form upper- and lower-case letters legibly in text, using the basic conventions of print (left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression), including spacing between words and sentences;

(B) recognize and use basic capitalization for:

(i) the beginning of sentences; and

(ii) names of people; and

(C) recognize and use punctuation marks at the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences and at the end of declarative sentences.

(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters and syllables to construct words;

(B) use syllable-sound patterns to generate a series of original rhyming words using a variety of ending patterns (e.g., -ción, -illa, -ita, -ito);

(C) blend phonemes to form syllables and words (e.g., mismo, tarde);

(D) become familiar with words using orthographic patterns including:

(i) words that use syllables with hard /r/ spelled as "r" or "rr," as in ratón and carro;

(ii) words that use syllables with soft /r/ spelled as "r" and always between two vowels, as in pero and perro;

(iii) words that use syllables with silent "h," as in hora and ahora;

(iv) words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in paragüero and agüita;

(v) words that have the same sound represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela); and

(vi) words using "n" before "v" (e.g., invitar), "m" before "b" (e.g., cambiar), and "m" before "p" (e.g., importante);

(E) become familiar with words with consonant blends (e.g., bra/bra-zo-, glo/glo-bo-);

(F) use knowledge of syllabic sounds, word parts, word segmentation, and syllabication to spell;

(G) become familiar with words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., calor, ratón);

(H) become familiar with the appropriate use of accents on words commonly used in questions and exclamations (e.g., cuál, dónde, cómo);

(I) become familiar with creating the plural form of words ending in "z" by replacing the "z" with "c" before adding -es (e.g., lápiz, lápices, feliz, felices); and

(J) use resources to find correct spellings.

(23) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) generate a list of topics of class-wide interest and formulate open-ended questions about one or two of the topics; and

(B) decide what sources of information might be relevant to answer these questions.

(24) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A) gather evidence from available sources (natural and personal) as well as from interviews with local experts;

(B) use text features (e.g., table of contents, alphabetized index) in age-appropriate reference works (e.g., picture dictionaries) to locate information; and

(C) record basic information in simple visual formats (e.g., notes, charts, picture graphs, diagrams).

(25) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to revise the topic as a result of answers to initial research questions.

(26) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to create a visual display or dramatization to convey the results of the research.

(27) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information; and

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.

(29) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions.

§128.13: Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report as well as other current and relevant research on Spanish literacy development. In second grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should write, read, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2) Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B) Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C) The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D) The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 2 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how Spanish is written and printed. Students are expected to distinguish features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization of first word, beginning and ending punctuation, commas, quotation marks, and em dash to indicate dialogue).

(2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds and spelling based on orthographic rules to decode written Spanish. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) decode words in context and in isolation by applying the knowledge of letter-sound relationships in different syllabic structures. including:

(i) open syllable (CV) (e.g., la/la-ta; to/to-ma);

(ii) closed syllable (CVC) (e.g., mes, sol);

(iii) diphthongs (e.g., viernes, pie, fui);

(iv) hiatus (e.g., fideo, poeta);

(v) consonant blends (e.g., bra/bra-zo; glo/glo-bo); and

(vi) consonant digraphs (e.g., ch/chi-le; ll/lla-ve; rr/pe-rro);

(B) use orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables including vowel diphthongs (e.g., pue-de, sien-te, va-ca);

(C) decode words with silent "h" with increasing accuracy;

(D) become familiar with words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in pingüino and agüita;

(E) decode words that have same sounds represented by different letters with increased accuracy (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela);

(F) read words with common prefixes (e.g., in-, des-) and suffixes (e.g., -mente, -dad, -oso);

(G) identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Dra.);

(H) identify the stressed syllable (sílaba tónica);

(I) decode words with an orthographic accent (e.g., papá, avión); and

(J) use knowledge of the meaning of base words to identify and read common compound words (e.g., sacapuntas, abrelatas, sobrecama).

(3) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A) use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing) to make and confirm predictions;

(B) ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and

(C) establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).

(4) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension.

(5) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) use prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of words (e.g., componer/descomponer; obedecer/desobedecer);

(B) use context to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify and use common words that are opposite (antonyms) or similar (synonyms) in meaning; and

(D) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or a glossary to find words.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) identify moral lessons as themes in well-known fables, legends, myths, or stories; and

(B) compare different versions of the same story in traditional and contemporary folktales with respect to their characters, settings, and plot.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe how rhyme, rhythm, and repetition interact to create images in poetry.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the elements of dialogue and use them in informal plays.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) describe similarities and differences in the plots and settings of several works by the same author; and

(B) describe main characters in works of fiction, including their traits, motivations, and feelings.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to distinguish between fiction and nonfiction.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to recognize that some words and phrases have literal and non-literal meanings (e.g., take steps).

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning.

(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and explain the author's purpose in writing the text.

(14) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about and understand expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the main idea in a text and distinguish it from the topic;

(B) locate the facts that are clearly stated in a text;

(C) describe the order of events or ideas in a text; and

(D) use text features (e.g., table of contents, index, headings) to locate specific information in text.

(15) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Text. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow written multi-step directions; and

(B) use common graphic features to assist in the interpretation of text (e.g., captions, illustrations).

(16) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) recognize different purposes of media (e.g., informational, entertainment);

(B) describe techniques used to create media messages (e.g., sound, graphics); and

(C) identify various written conventions for using digital media (e.g., e-mail, website, video game).

(17) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing (e.g., drawing, sharing ideas, listing key ideas);

(B) develop drafts by sequencing ideas through writing sentences;

(C) revise drafts by adding or deleting words, phrases, or sentences;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, punctuation, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E) publish and share writing with others.

(18) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write brief stories that include a beginning, middle, and end; and

(B) write short poems that convey sensory details.

(19) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write brief compositions about topics of interest to the student;

(B) write short letters that put ideas in a chronological or logical sequence and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C) write brief comments on literary or informational texts.

(20) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive statements about issues that are important to the student for the appropriate audience in the school, home, or local community.

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) regular and irregular verbs (past, present, and future in the indicative mode);

(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive: viejo, maravilloso);

(iv) articles (e.g., un, una, la, el);

(v) adverbs (e.g., time: antes, después; manner: cuidadosamente);

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns (e.g., él, su); and

(viii) time-order transition words; and

(B) distinguish among declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative sentences.

(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) write legibly leaving appropriate margins for readability;

(B) use capitalization for:

(i) proper nouns; and

(ii) the salutation and closing of a letter;

(C) understand that months and days of the week are not capitalized;

(D) recognize and use punctuation marks, including beginning and ending punctuation in sentences; and

(E) identify, read, and write abbreviations (e.g., Srta., Dr.).

(23) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) become familiar with words using orthographic patterns including:

(i) words that use syllables with hard /r/ spelled as "r" or "rr," as in ratón and carro;

(ii) words that use syllables with soft /r/ spelled as "r" and always between two vowels, as in loro and cara;

(iii) words that use syllables with silent "h," as in hora and hoy;

(iv) words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in paragüero and agüita;

(v) words that have the same sound represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela); and

(vi) words using "n" before "v" (e.g., invitación), "m" before "b" (e.g., cambiar), and "m" before "p" (e.g., comprar);

(B) spell words with consonant blends (e.g., bra/bra-zo-, glo/glo-bo-);

(C) spell the plural form of words ending in "z" by replacing the "z" with "c" before adding -es (e.g., lápiz, lápices, feliz, felices);

(D) use knowledge of syllabic sounds, word parts, word segmentation, and syllabication to spell;

(E) spell words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción);

(F) become familiar with words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable (palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol);

(G) use accents appropriately on words commonly used in questions and exclamations (e.g., cuál, dónde, cómo);

(H) mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in the simple past in the indicative mode (e.g., corrió, jugó);

(I) identify, read, and write abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Dra.); and

(J) use resources to find correct spellings.

(24) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) generate a list of topics of class-wide interest and formulate open-ended questions about one or two of the topics; and

(B) decide what sources of information might be relevant to answer these questions.

(25) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) gather evidence from available sources (natural and personal) as well as from interviews with local experts;

(B) use text features (e.g., table of contents, alphabetized index, headings) in age-appropriate reference works (e.g., picture dictionaries) to locate information; and

(C) record basic information in simple visual formats (e.g., notes, charts, picture graphs, diagrams).

(26) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to revise the topic as a result of answers to initial research questions.

(27) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to create a visual display or dramatization to convey the results of the research.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information; and

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

(29) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.

(30) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions.

§128.14: Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In third grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read, write, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2) Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B) Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C) The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D) The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 3 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds and spelling based on orthographic rules to decode written Spanish. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) use orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables including diphthongs (e.g., na-die, ra-dio);

(B) decode words with silent "h" with increasing accuracy;

(C) decode words that use the syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in pingüino and agüita;

(D) develop automatic recognition of words that have the same sounds represented by different letters with increased accuracy (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela);

(E) read words with common prefixes (e.g., in-, des-) and suffixes (e.g., -mente, -dad, -oso);

(F) identify the syllable that is stressed (sílaba tónica);

(G) decode words with an orthographic accent (e.g., día, también, después);

(H) use knowledge of the meaning of base words to identify and read common compound words (e.g., sacapuntas, abrelatas, salvavidas); and

(I) monitor accuracy in decoding words that have same sound represented by different letters.

(2) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A) use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing clues) to make and confirm predictions;

(B) ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and

(C) establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).

(3) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension.

(4) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the meaning of common prefixes (e.g., ex-, des-) and suffixes (e.g., -era, -oso), and know how they change the meaning of roots;

(B) use context to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or distinguish among multiple meaning words and homographs (e.g., vino -la bebida; vino -del verbo venir);

(C) identify and use antonyms, synonyms, and homophones (e.g., tubo, tuvo);

(D) identify and apply playful uses of language (e.g., tongue twisters, palindromes, riddles); and

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter and use a dictionary or a glossary to determine the meanings and syllabication of unknown words.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) paraphrase the themes and supporting details of fables, legends, myths, or stories; and

(B) compare and contrast the settings in myths and traditional folktales.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the characteristics of various forms of poetry and how they create imagery (e.g., narrative poetry, lyrical poetry, humorous poetry, free verse).

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the elements of plot and character as presented through dialogue in scripts that are read, viewed, written, or performed.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events;

(B) describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo; and

(C) identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference in point of view between a biography and autobiography.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify language that creates a graphic visual experience and appeals to the senses.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and locate the author's stated purposes in writing the text.

(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the details or facts that support the main idea;

(B) draw conclusions from the facts presented in text and support those assertions with textual evidence;

(C) identify explicit cause and effect relationships among ideas in texts; and

(D) use text features (e.g., bold print, captions, key words, italics) to locate information and make and verify predictions about contents of text.

(14) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to identify what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(15) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow and explain a set of written multi-step directions; and

(B) locate and use specific information in graphic features of text.

(16) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) understand how communication changes when moving from one genre of media to another;

(B) explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., shape, color, sound); and

(C) compare various written conventions used for digital media (e.g., language in an informal e-mail vs. language in a web-based news article).

(17) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals);

(B) develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs;

(C) revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E) publish written work for a specific audience.

(18) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the characters and setting; and

(B) write poems that convey sensory details using the conventions of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, patterns of verse).

(19) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write about important personal experiences.

(20) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) create brief compositions that:

(i) establish a central idea in a topic sentence;

(ii) include supporting sentences with simple facts, details, and explanations; and

(iii) contain a concluding statement;

(B) write letters whose language is tailored to the audience and purpose (e.g., a thank you note to a friend) and that use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C) write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text.

(21) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and use supporting details.

(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) regular and irregular verbs (past, present, future, and perfect tenses in the indicative mode);

(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive: dorado, rectangular; limiting: este, ese, aquel);

(iv) articles (e.g., un, una, lo, la, el, los, las);

(v) adverbs (e.g., time: luego, antes; manner: cuidadosamente);

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) possessive pronouns (e.g., su, sus, mi, mis, suyo);

(viii) coordinating conjunctions (e.g., y, o, pero); and

(ix) time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion (e.g., finalmente, por último);

(B) use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence;

(C) use complete simple and compound sentences; and

(D) identify, read, and write abbreviations (e.g., Ave, Dra., Atte.).

(23) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) write legibly in cursive script with spacing between words in a sentence;

(B) use capitalization for:

(i) geographical names and places;

(ii) historical periods; and

(iii) official titles of people;

(C) recognize and use punctuation marks including commas; and

(D) use correct mechanics including paragraph indentations or "sangrías."

(24) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) spell words with increased accuracy using orthographic rules, including:

(i) words that use syllables with hard /r/ spelled as "r" or "rr," as in ratón and carro;

(ii) words that use syllables with soft /r/ spelled as "r" and always between two vowels, as in pero and perro;

(iii) words that use syllables with silent "h" (e.g., ahora, almohada);

(iv) words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in paragüero and agüita;

(v) words that have the same sound represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela); and

(vi) words using "n" before "v" (e.g., invitación), "m" before "b" (e.g., cambiar), and "m" before "p" (e.g., comprar);

(B) spell words with consonant blends with increased accuracy (e.g., bra/bra-zo-, glo/glo-bo-);

(C) spell with increased accuracy the plural form of words ending in "z" by replacing the "z" with "c" before adding -es (e.g., capaz, capaces; raíz, raices);

(D) use knowledge of syllabic sounds, word parts, word segmentation, and syllabication to spell;

(E) write with increased accuracy using accent marks, including:

(i) words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción); and

(ii) words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable (palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol);

(F) become familiar with words that have an orthographic accent on the third-to-last syllable (palabras esdrújulas) (e.g., último, cómico, mecánico);

(G) become familiar with the concept of hiatus and diphthongs and the implications for orthographic accents (e.g., le-er, rí-o; quie-ro, vio);

(H) use with increased accuracy accents on words commonly used in questions and exclamations (e.g., cuál, dónde, cómo);

(I) differentiate the meaning or function of a word based on the diacritical accent (e.g., se/sé, el/él, mas/más);

(J) mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses (e.g., corrió, jugó, tenía, gustaría, vendrá); and

(K) use print and electronic resources to find and check correct spellings.

(25) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) generate research topics from personal interests or by brainstorming with others, narrow to one topic, and formulate open-ended questions about the major research topic; and

(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information (e.g., surveys, interviews, encyclopedias) about the major research question.

(26) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to collect information from multiple sources of information, both oral and written, including:

(i) student-initiated surveys, on-site inspections, and interviews;

(ii) data from experts, reference texts, and online searches; and

(iii) visual sources of information (e.g., maps, timelines, graphs) where appropriate;

(B) use skimming and scanning techniques to identify data by looking at text features (e.g., bold print, captions, key words, italics);

(C) take simple notes and sort evidence into provided categories or an organizer;

(D) identify the author, title, publisher, and publication year of sources; and

(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(27) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to improve the focus of research as a result of consulting expert sources (e.g., reference librarians and local experts on the topic).

(28) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to draw conclusions through a brief written explanation and create a works-cited page from notes, including the author, title, publisher, and publication year for each source used.

(29) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen attentively to speakers, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments; and

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action.

(30) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(31) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in teacher- and student-led discussions by posing and answering questions with appropriate detail and by providing suggestions that build upon the ideas of others.

§128.15: Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In fourth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read, write, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2) Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B) Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C) The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D) The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 4 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level stories with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension.

(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic Spanish words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) use the context of the sentence (e.g., in-sentence example or definition) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple meaning words;

(C) complete analogies using knowledge of antonyms and synonyms (e.g., boy:girl as male:____ or girl:woman as boy:_____);

(D) identify the meaning of common idioms; and

(E) use a dictionary or glossary to determine the meanings, spelling, and syllabication of unknown words.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize and explain the lesson or message of a work of fiction as its theme; and

(B) compare and contrast the adventures or exploits of characters (e.g., the trickster) in traditional and classical literature.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how the structural elements of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, stanzas, line breaks) relate to form (e.g., lyrical poetry, free verse).

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the structural elements particular to dramatic literature.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events;

(B) describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo; and

(C) identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify similarities and differences between the events and characters' experiences in a fictional work and the actual events and experiences described in an author's biography or autobiography.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the author's use of similes and metaphors to produce imagery.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference between a stated and an implied purpose for an expository text.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize the main idea and supporting details in text in ways that maintain meaning;

(B) distinguish fact from opinion in a text and explain how to verify what is a fact;

(C) describe explicit and implicit relationships among ideas in texts organized by cause-and-effect, sequence, or comparison; and

(D) use multiple text features (e.g., guide words, topic and concluding sentences) to gain an overview of the contents of text and to locate information.

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to explain how an author uses language to present information to influence what the reader thinks or does.

(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the sequence of activities needed to carry out a procedure (e.g., following a recipe); and

(B) explain factual information presented graphically (e.g., charts, diagrams, graphs, illustrations).

(14) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) explain the positive and negative impacts of advertisement techniques used in various genres of media to impact consumer behavior;

(B) explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., pacing, close-ups, sound effects); and

(C) compare various written conventions used for digital media (e.g., language in an informal e-mail vs. language in a web-based news article).

(15) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals);

(B) develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs;

(C) revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for a specific audience.

(16) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the characters and setting; and

(B) write poems that convey sensory details using the conventions of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, patterns of verse).

(17) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write about important personal experiences.

(18) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) create brief compositions that:

(i) establish a central idea in a topic sentence;

(ii) include supporting sentences with simple facts, details, and explanations; and

(iii) contain a concluding statement;

(B) write letters whose language is tailored to the audience and purpose (e.g., a thank you note to a friend) and that use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C) write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding.

(19) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and use supporting details.

(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) regular and irregular verbs (past, present, future, and perfect tenses in the indicative mode);

(ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive, including adjective phrases: vestido de domingo) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., más que, la más);

(iv) adverbs (e.g., frequency: usualmente, a veces; intensity: casi, mucho);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

(vi) reflexive pronouns (e.g., me, te, se, nos);

(vii) correlative conjunctions (e.g., o/o, ni/ni); and

(viii) time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion;

(B) use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence; and

(C) use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) write legibly by selecting cursive script or manuscript printing as appropriate;

(B) use capitalization for:

(i) historical events and documents; and

(ii) the first words of titles of books, stories, and essays;

(C) recognize and use punctuation marks including commas in compound sentences; colons, semi-colons, ellipses, the hyphen, and em dash; and

(D) identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Atte.).

(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) write with increasing accuracy using accent marks including:

(i) words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción);

(ii) words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable (palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol); and

(iii) words that have an orthographic accent on the third-to-last syllable (palabras esdrújulas) (e.g., último, cómico, mecánico);

(B) spell words with hiatus and diphthongs (e.g., le-er, rí-o, quie-ro, vio);

(C) spell base words and roots with affixes (e.g., ex-, pre-, post-, -able);

(D) spell words with:

(i) Greek roots (e.g., tele-, foto-, grafo-, metro-);

(ii) Latin roots (e.g., spec, scrib, rupt, port, dict);

(iii) Greek suffixes (e.g., -ología, -fobia, -ismo, -ista); and

(iv) Latin derived suffixes (e.g., -able, -ible, -ancia);

(E) differentiate the meaning or function of a word based on the diacritical accent (e.g., dé, de; tú, tu);

(F) mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses (e.g., corrió, jugó, tenía, gustaría, vendrá); and

(G) use spelling patterns, rules, and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(23) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) generate research topics from personal interests or by brainstorming with others, narrow to one topic, and formulate open-ended questions about the major research topic; and

(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information (e.g., surveys, interviews, encyclopedias) about the major research question.

(24) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to collect information from multiple sources of information both oral and written, including:

(i) student-initiated surveys, on-site inspections, and interviews;

(ii) data from experts, reference texts, and online searches; and

(iii) visual sources of information (e.g., maps, timelines, graphs) where appropriate;

(B) use skimming and scanning techniques to identify data by looking at text features (e.g., bold print, italics);

(C) take simple notes and sort evidence into provided categories or an organizer;

(D) identify the author, title, publisher, and publication year of sources; and

(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(25) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to improve the focus of research as a result of consulting expert sources (e.g., reference librarians and local experts on the topic).

(26) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to draw conclusions through a brief written explanation and create a works-cited page from notes, including the author, title, publisher, and publication year for each source used.

(27) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen attentively to speakers, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments; and

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, and enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(29) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in teacher- and student-led discussions by posing and answering questions with appropriate detail and by providing suggestions that build upon the ideas of others.

§128.16: Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In fifth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read, write, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2) Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B) Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C) The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D) The concept of transfer necessitates the use of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 5 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level stories with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension.

(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic Spanish words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) use context (e.g., in-sentence restatement) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words;

(C) produce analogies with known antonyms and synonyms;

(D) identify and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and other sayings; and

(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, spelling, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) compare and contrast the themes or moral lessons of several works of fiction from various cultures;

(B) describe the phenomena explained in origin myths from various cultures; and

(C) explain the effect of a historical event or movement on the theme of a work of literature.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how poets use sound effects (e.g., alliteration, internal rhyme, onomatopoeia, rhyme scheme) to reinforce meaning in poems.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the similarities and differences between an original text and its dramatic adaptation.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) describe incidents that advance the story or novel, explaining how each incident gives rise to or foreshadows future events;

(B) explain the roles and functions of characters in various plots, including their relationships and conflicts; and

(C) explain different forms of third-person points of view in stories.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in biographies and autobiographies, including how authors present major events in a person's life.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the impact of sensory details, imagery, and figurative language in literary text.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and summarize or paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text, including culturally relevant texts, to support their understanding. Students are expected to draw conclusions from the information presented by an author and evaluate how well the author's purpose was achieved.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize the main ideas and supporting details in a text in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(B) determine the facts in text and verify them through established methods;

(C) analyze how the organizational pattern of a text (e.g., cause-and-effect, compare-and-contrast, sequential order, logical order, classification schemes) influences the relationships among the ideas;

(D) use multiple text features and graphics to gain an overview of the contents of text and to locate information; and

(E) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres.

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) identify the author's viewpoint or position and explain the basic relationships among ideas (e.g., parallelism, comparison, causality) in the argument; and

(B) recognize exaggerated, contradictory, or misleading statements in text.

(13) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) interpret details from procedural text to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

(B) interpret factual or quantitative information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

(14) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) explain how messages conveyed in various forms of media are presented differently (e.g., documentaries, online information, televised news);

(B) consider the difference in techniques used in media (e.g., commercials, documentaries, news);

(C) identify the point of view of media presentations; and

(D) analyze various digital media venues for levels of formality and informality.

(15) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C) revise drafts to clarify meaning, enhance style, include simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(16) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write imaginative stories that include:

(i) a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;

(ii) a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory details; and

(iii) dialogue that develops the story; and

(B) write poems using:

(i) poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);

(ii) figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors); and

(iii) graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length).

(17) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that conveys thoughts and feelings about an experience.

(18) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) create multi-paragraph essays to convey information about the topic that:

(i) present effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii) guide and inform the reader's understanding of key ideas and evidence;

(iii) include specific facts, details, and examples in an appropriately organized structure; and

(iv) use a variety of sentence structures and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B) write formal and informal letters that convey ideas, include important information, demonstrate a sense of closure, and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C) write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding.

(19) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and include sound reasoning, detailed and relevant evidence, and consideration of alternatives.

(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) regular and irregular verbs (past, present, future, and perfect tenses in the indicative mode);

(ii) collective nouns (e.g., manada, rebaño);

(iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive, including those expressing origin (gentilicios): auto francés, dólar americano) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., bueno, mejor, la mejor);

(iv) adverbs (e.g., frequency: usualmente, a veces; intensity: casi, mucho);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

(vi) indefinite pronouns (e.g., todos, juntos, nada, cualquier);

(vii) subordinating conjunctions (e.g., mientras, porque, aunque, si); and

(viii) transitional words (e.g., también, por lo tanto);

(B) become familiar with regular and irregular verbs in the present and past tenses in the subjunctive mode (e.g., que diga; que dijera);

(C) use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence;

(D) use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement; and

(E) identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Atte.).

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) use capitalization for:

(i) abbreviations;

(ii) initials and acronyms; and

(iii) organizations;

(B) recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i) commas in compound sentences; and

(ii) proper punctuation and spacing for quotations and em dash; and

(C) use proper mechanics, including italics for titles of books.

(22) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules, including:

(i) words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción);

(ii) words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable (palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol);

(iii) words that have an orthographic accent on the third-to-last syllable (palabras esdrújulas) (e.g., último, cómico, mecánico); and

(iv) words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the fourth-to-last syllable (palabras sobresdrújulas);

(B) mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses (e.g., corrió, jugó, tenía, gustaría, vendrá);

(C) spell words with:

(i) Greek roots (e.g., tele-, foto-, grafo-, metro-);

(ii) Latin roots (e.g., spec, scrib, rupt, port, dict);

(iii) Greek suffixes (e.g., -ología, -fobia, -ismo, -ista); and

(iv) Latin derived suffixes (e.g., -able, -ible, -ancia);

(D) correctly spell words containing hiatus and diphthongs (e.g., le-er, rí-o, quie-ro, vio);

(E) differentiate between commonly confused terms (e.g., porque, por qué; asimismo, así mismo; sino, si no; también, tan bien);

(F) use spelling patterns, rules, and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings; and

(G) know how to use the spell-check function in word processing while understanding its limitations.

(23) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate open-ended questions to address the major research topic; and

(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information about the major research question.

(24) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to collect data from a range of print and electronic resources in Spanish (e.g., reference texts, periodicals, web pages, online sources) and data from experts;

(B) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(C) record data, utilizing available technology (e.g., word processors) in order to see the relationships between ideas, and convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes;

(D) identify the source of notes (e.g., author, title, page number) and record bibliographic information concerning those sources according to a standard format; and

(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(25) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions; and

(B) evaluate the relevance, validity, and reliability of sources for the research.

(26) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A) compiles important information from multiple sources;

(B) develops a topic sentence, summarizes findings, and uses evidence to support conclusions;

(C) presents the findings in a consistent format; and

(D) uses quotations to support ideas and an appropriate form of documentation to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited).

(27) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen to and interpret a speaker's messages (both verbal and nonverbal) and ask questions to clarify the speaker's purpose or perspective;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps; and

(C) determine both main and supporting ideas in the speaker's message.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give organized presentations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(29) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members and by identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

Subchapter B

§128.17: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Middle School, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) The provisions of §128.18 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b) Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Attached Graphic

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §128.17 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1463

§128.18: Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In sixth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read, write, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2) Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B) Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C) The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D) The concept of transfer necessitates the use of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 6 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to:

(A) read aloud grade-level text with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension; and

(B) use prosody when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.

(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic Spanish words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) use context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words;

(C) complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part (e.g., motor:carro como aire: ____ or carro:motor como llanta: ____); and

(D) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, spelling, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) infer the implicit theme of a work of fiction, distinguishing theme from the topic;

(B) analyze the function of stylistic elements (e.g., magic helper, rule of three) in traditional and classical literature from various cultures; and

(C) compare and contrast the historical and cultural settings of two literary works.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how figurative language (e.g., personification, metaphors, similes, hyperbole) contributes to the meaning of a poem.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the similarities and differences in the setting, characters, and plot of a play, including original works in Spanish, and those in a film based upon the same story line.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize the elements of plot development (e.g., rising action, turning point, climax, falling action, denouement) in various works of fiction;

(B) recognize dialect and conversational voice and explain how authors use dialect to convey character; and

(C) describe different forms of point-of-view, including first- and third-person.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in memoirs and personal narratives and compare their characteristics with those of an autobiography.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how authors create meaning through stylistic elements and figurative language emphasizing the use of personification, hyperbole, and refrains.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text, including culturally relevant texts, to support their understanding. Students are expected to compare and contrast the stated or implied purposes of different authors writing on the same topic.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize the main ideas and supporting details in text, demonstrating an understanding that a summary does not include opinions;

(B) explain whether facts included in an argument are used for or against an issue;

(C) explain how different organizational patterns (e.g., proposition-and-support, problem-and-solution) develop the main idea and the author's viewpoint; and

(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) compare and contrast the structure and viewpoints of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claim and supporting evidence; and

(B) identify simply faulty reasoning used in persuasive texts.

(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) follow multi-tasked instructions to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

(B) interpret factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

(13) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) explain messages conveyed in various forms of media;

(B) recognize how various techniques influence viewers' emotions;

(C) critique persuasive techniques (e.g., testimonials, bandwagon appeal) used in media messages; and

(D) analyze various digital media venues for levels of formality and informality.

(14) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C) revise drafts to clarify meaning, enhance style, include simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(15) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A) write imaginative stories that include:

(i) a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;

(ii) a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory details; and

(iii) dialogue that develops the story; and

(B) write poems using:

(i) poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);

(ii) figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors); and

(iii) graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length).

(16) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.

(17) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) create multi-paragraph essays to convey information about a topic that:

(i) present effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii) guide and inform the reader's understanding of key ideas and evidence;

(iii) include specific facts, details, and examples in an appropriately organized structure; and

(iv) use a variety of sentence structures and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B) write informal letters that convey ideas, include important information, demonstrate a sense of closure, and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing);

(C) write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding; and

(D) produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.

(18) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and include sound reasoning, detailed and relevant evidence, and consideration of alternatives.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) regular and irregular verbs (past, present, future, and perfect tenses in the indicative mode;

(ii) non-count nouns (e.g., cardúmen, jaulía);

(iii) predicate adjectives (Ella es inteligente.) and their comparative forms (e.g., muy, más);

(iv) conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consecuentemente, además, de hecho);

(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

(vi) indefinite pronouns (e.g., todos, juntos, nada, cualquier);

(vii) subordinating conjunctions (e.g., mientras, porque, aunque, si); and

(viii) transitional words and phrases that demonstrate an understanding of the function of the transition related to the organization of the writing (e.g., por el contrario, además de);

(B) become familiar with regular and irregular verbs in the present and past tenses in the subjunctive mode (e.g., que haya, que hubiera);

(C) differentiate between the active and passive voice and know how to use them both; and

(D) use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) use capitalization for:

(i) abbreviations;

(ii) initials and acronyms; and

(iii) organizations;

(B) recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i) commas in compound sentences;

(ii) proper punctuation and spacing for quotations and em dash; and

(iii) parentheses, brackets, and ellipses (to indicate omissions and interruptions or incomplete statements); and

(C) use proper mechanics, including italics for titles of books.

(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A) spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules, including:

(i) words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción);

(ii) words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable (palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol);

(iii) words that have an orthographic accent on the third-to-last syllable (palabras esdrújulas) (e.g., último, cómico, mecánico); and

(iv) words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the fourth-to-last syllable (palabras sobresdrújulas);

(B) mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses (e.g., corrió, jugó, tenía, gustaría, vendrá);

(C) spell words with:

(i) Greek roots (e.g., tele-, foto-, grafo-, metro-);

(ii) Latin roots (e.g., spec, scrib, rupt, port, dict);

(iii) Greek suffixes (e.g., -ología, -fobia, -ismo, -ista); and

(iv) Latin derived suffixes (e.g., -able, -ible, -ancia);

(D) correctly spell words containing hiatus and diphthongs (le-er, rí-o, quie-ro, vio);

(E) differentiate between commonly confused terms (e.g., porque, por qué; tampoco, tan poco; mediodía, medio día; quehacer, que hacer);

(F) use spelling patterns, rules, and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings; and

(G) know how to use the spell-check function in word processing while understanding its limitations.

(22) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate open-ended questions to address the major research topic; and

(B) generate a research plan for gathering relevant information about the major research question.

(23) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to collect data from a range of print and electronic resources in Spanish (e.g., reference texts, periodicals, web pages, online sources) and data from experts;

(B) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(C) record data, utilizing available technology (e.g., word processors) in order to see the relationships between ideas, and convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes;

(D) identify the source of notes (e.g., author, title, page number) and record bibliographic information concerning those sources according to a standard format; and

(E) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(24) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions; and

(B) evaluate the relevance and reliability of sources for the research.

(25) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A) compiles important information from multiple sources;

(B) develops a topic sentence, summarizes findings, and uses evidence to support conclusions;

(C) presents the findings in a consistent format; and

(D) uses quotations to support ideas and an appropriate form of documentation to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited).

(26) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen to and interpret a speaker's messages (both verbal and nonverbal) and ask questions to clarify the speaker's purpose and perspective;

(B) follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps; and

(C) paraphrase the major ideas and supporting evidence in formal and informal presentations.

(27) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give an organized presentation with a specific point of view, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(28) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members and by identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

Subchapter C

§128.30: Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English as a Second Language, High School, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) The provisions of §128.31 and §128.32 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b) Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Attached Graphic

Comments

Source Note: The provisions of this §128.30 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1463

§128.31: English I for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English I for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL I) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are identical to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) ESOL I may be substituted for English I as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL I students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(3) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. In addition, ELLs are acquiring English at the same time they are learning content in English. ELLs' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While ELLs can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. For this reason, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds that include adapted text (e.g., appropriate for student proficiency level; translations), pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use their knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to enhance their vocabulary development, and vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(4) Research consistently shows that a strong foundation in the native language of an ELL facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English.

(5) For newcomers in secondary schooling, the challenge then is not only learning English, but learning in English. ELLs are challenged in working with linguistic, cognitive, and academic development in all of their coursework and in a new language. Some newcomers exhibit additional first language and/or academic needs due to their previous educational experiences that may include interrupted and/or limited schooling. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English, especially for students who are newcomers and at beginning levels of English language proficiency. Their academic success depends on their ability to use academic language.

(6) Second language acquisition is a complex process that even under optimal conditions takes a long time (Collier, 1997). It is important to understand that limited knowledge of English structure and vocabulary is neither related to the students' intellectual capabilities nor their ability to use higher-order thinking skills. The development of receptive (listening/reading) and expressive (speaking/writing) skills in second language learners may be at different stages. In some instances, second language learners undergo silent periods of varying durations when they first begin to learn a new language. Students often understand more than they can produce and may repeat words in sentences that they do not entirely understand. Second language learners may also draw upon the resources of their language and culture as they acquire a new language and culture.

(7) In order for ELLs to be successful, they must acquire both social and academic language proficiency in English. Social language proficiency in English consists of the English needed for daily social interactions. Academic language proficiency consists of the English needed to think critically, understand and learn new concepts, process complex academic material, and interact and communicate in English academic settings.

(8) Academic language is a major factor in academic success. Academic language and grammatical structures are used across all subject areas and is specific to the content area, such as language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. This must also be provided in a manner that is linguistically accommodated (contextualized, communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.

(9) ELLs require focused, targeted, and systematic second language acquisition to provide them with the foundation of English language vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and English mechanics necessary to support content-based instruction and accelerated learning of English. Literacy development across the content areas is essential in building academic skills in a second language and can accelerate the learning of both English language skills and higher-order thinking skills.

(10) ELL students are at different stages of language acquisition. Proficiency levels are not grade specific: Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced, and Advanced High. The ELL student may exhibit different proficiency levels within the four language components: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. A student may exhibit oral skills at the advanced level, reading skills at the intermediate level, and writing skills at the beginning level. Understanding the level of English language proficiency of the student is critical in order for the student to have access to the curriculum. The proficiency level of the student determines the accommodations in language that must be made (e.g., adapted text appropriate for student proficiency level; translations) as well as, determines additional scaffolds (e.g., pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus) in order to learn the academic content. Any combination of the language components is possible and is affected by opportunities for interaction in and outside of school. For further guidance in second language acquisition, refer to the English language proficiency standards (ELPS) described in §74.4 of this title.

(A) Beginning: Students associate utterances with meaning as they make inferences based on actions, visuals, text, tone of voice, and inflections. Receptive language with some comprehension is acquired earlier than oral production. Beginning students produce spoken English with increasing accuracy and fluency to convey appropriate meaning. They read English using graphophonic cues, syntax, visuals, the context of the text, and their prior knowledge of language and structure of text.

(B) Intermediate: Students use the listening process to improve comprehension and oral skills in English. Through listening and speaking in meaningful interactions, they clarify, distinguish, and evaluate ideas and responses in a variety of situations. Intermediate students participate successfully in academic, social, and work contexts in English using the process of speaking to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Intermediate students read English using and applying developmental vocabulary to increase comprehension and produce written text to address a variety of audiences and purposes.

(C) Advanced: Students, through developmental listening skills, actively expand their vocabulary to evaluate and analyze spoken English for a variety of situations and purposes. These students participate in a variety of situations using spoken English to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Advanced students continually develop reading skills for increasing reading proficiency in content area texts for a variety of purposes and generate written text for different audiences in a variety of modes to convey appropriate meaning according to their level of proficiency.

(D) Advanced High: Students' reading, speaking, and writing abilities are comparable to those of their native English speaking peers. They understand grade appropriate English as it is used in academic and social settings. These students use language skills on their grade level in the academic subject areas with minimal interruptions and they use abstract and content based vocabulary effectively. Advanced High students continually use the English language to build additional foundational reading skills such as fluency and prosody as well as higher-order comprehension skills. These students have a strong command of English language structures necessary to address writing at appropriate grade levels.

(11) Students enrolled in ESOL I continue to increase and refine their communication skills. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis. Students edit their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English and, with increasing accuracy, produce final, error-free drafts. In English I, students practice all forms of writing. An emphasis is placed on organizing logical arguments with clearly expressed related definitions, thesis, and evidence. Students write to persuade and to report and describe. English I students read extensively in multiple genres from world literature such as reading selected stories, dramas, novels, and poetry originally written in English or translated to English from oriental, classical Greek, European, African, South American, and North American cultures. Students learn literary forms and terms associated with selections being read. Students interpret the possible influences of the historical context on a literary work.

(12) The knowledge and skills and/or student expectations that are applicable specifically to ELLs are indicated in §74.4 of this title as well as in subsection (b) of this section.

(13) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations in English I as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(14) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C) produce analogies that describe a function of an object or its description;

(D) describe the origins and meanings of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English (e.g., caveat emptor, carte blanche, tete a tete, pas de deux, bon appetit, quid pro quo); and

(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze how the genre of texts with similar themes shapes meaning;

(B) analyze the influence of mythic, classical and traditional literature on 20th and 21st century literature; and

(C) relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effects of diction and imagery (e.g., controlling images, figurative language, understatement, overstatement, irony, paradox) in poetry.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how dramatic conventions (e.g., monologues, soliloquies, dramatic irony) enhance dramatic text.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze non-linear plot development (e.g., flashbacks, foreshadowing, sub-plots, parallel plot structures) and compare it to linear plot development;

(B) analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C) analyze the way in which a work of fiction is shaped by the narrator's point of view; and

(D) demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on classical literature.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how literary essays interweave personal examples and ideas with factual information to explain, present a perspective, or describe a situation or event.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the role of irony, sarcasm, and paradox in literary works.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the controlling idea and specific purpose of an expository text and distinguish the most important from the less important details that support the author's purpose.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize text and distinguish between a summary that captures the main ideas and elements of a text and a critique that takes a position and expresses an opinion;

(B) differentiate between opinions that are substantiated and unsubstantiated in the text;

(C) make subtle inferences and draw complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze the relevance, quality, and credibility of evidence given to support or oppose an argument for a specific audience; and

(B) analyze famous speeches for the rhetorical structures and devices used to convince the reader of the authors' propositions.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze the clarity of the objective(s) of procedural text (e.g., consider reading instructions for software, warranties, consumer publications); and

(B) analyze factual, quantitative, or technical data presented in multiple graphical sources.

(12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) compare and contrast how events are presented and information is communicated by visual images (e.g., graphic art, illustrations, news photographs) versus non-visual texts;

(B) analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C) compare and contrast coverage of the same event in various media (e.g., newspapers, television, documentaries, blogs, Internet); and

(D) evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C) revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A) write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, and a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot;

(B) write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C) write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i) effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii) rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii) a controlling idea or thesis;

(iv) an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context; and

(v) relevant information and valid inferences;

(B) write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i) organized and accurately conveyed information; and

(ii) reader-friendly formatting techniques;

(C) write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i) extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii) addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii) analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices; and

(D) produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A) a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B) consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views;

(C) counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D) an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; and

(E) an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas.

(17) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii) restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii) reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B) identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) use conventions of capitalization; and

(B) use correct punctuation marks including:

(i) quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony;

(ii) comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions; and

(iii) dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B) formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B) organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C) paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B) evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A) marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B) provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C) uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D) uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C) evaluate the effectiveness of a speaker's main and supporting ideas.

(25) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give presentations using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

(27) Second language acquisition/learning strategies. The ESOL I student uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his/her own learning processes in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A) use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English;

(B) monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources;

(C) use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary;

(D) speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known);

(E) internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment;

(F) use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process;

(G) demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(H) develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations; and

(I) make connections across content areas and use and reuse language and concepts in different ways.

(28) Second language acquisition/listening. The ESOL I student listens to a variety of speakers, including teachers, peers, and electronic media, to gain an increasing level of comprehension and appreciation for newly acquired language in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A) distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease;

(B) recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters;

(C) learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions;

(D) monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed;

(E) use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language;

(F) listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(G) understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar;

(H) understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(I) demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs;

(J) understand basic structures, expressions, and vocabulary such as school environment, greetings, questions, and directions;

(K) analyze and evaluate spoken discourse for appropriateness of purpose with a variety of audiences such as formal, consultative, casual, and intimate language registers; and

(L) infer meaning by making associations of utterances with actions, visuals, and the context of the situation.

(29) Second language acquisition/speaking. The ESOL I student speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using developmental vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A) practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible;

(B) expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, objects, events, and basic concepts such as numbers, days of the week, food, occupations, and time by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication;

(C) speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired;

(D) speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency;

(E) share information in cooperative learning interactions;

(F) ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts such as directions and address as well as name, age, and nationality, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments;

(G) express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics;

(H) narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired;

(I) adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes;

(J) respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(K) share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication and to foster respect for others; and

(L) describe the immediate surroundings such as classroom, school, and home.

(30) Second language acquisition/reading. The ESOL I student reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A) learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words;

(B) recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom;

(C) develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials;

(D) use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pre-taught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text;

(E) read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned;

(F) use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language;

(G) demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs;

(H) read silently with increasing ease for longer periods;

(I) demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs;

(J) demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs;

(K) demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs;

(L) read authentic literature and use kinesthetic visual support to develop vocabulary, structures, and build background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly-challenging language;

(M) use verbal cueing strategies such as pauses and exaggerated intonation for key words and non-verbal cueing strategies such as facial expressions and gestures to enhance the reading experience; and

(N) retell, role-play, and/or visually illustrate the order of events.

(31) Second language acquisition/writing. The ESOL I student writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A) learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English;

(B) write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary;

(C) spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired;

(D) edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired;

(E) employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations such as:

(i) using correct verbs, tenses, auxiliaries, and pronouns/antecedents;

(ii) using nominative, objective, and possessive case (apostrophe s) correctly;

(iii) demonstrating knowledge of parts of speech; and

(iv) using negatives and contractions correctly;

(F) write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired;

(G) narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired;

(H) use basic capitalization and punctuation correctly such as capitalizing names and first letters in sentences and using periods, question marks, and exclamation points;

(I) use graphic organizers as pre-writing activity to demonstrate prior knowledge, to add new information, and to prepare to write;

(J) write with more proficient use of orthographic patterns such as digraphs and consonant blends with the initial s- and rules such as "qu" together, consonant doubling, dropping final "e," and changing "y" to "i"; and

(K) develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into sentences and paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text.

§128.32: English II for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010

(a) Introduction.

(1) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English II for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL II) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are identical to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) ESOL II may be substituted for English II as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL II students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(3) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. In addition, ELLs are acquiring English at the same time they are learning content in English. ELLs' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While ELLs can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. For this reason, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds that include adapted text (e.g., appropriate for student proficiency level; translations), pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELL students can and should be encouraged to use their knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to enhance their vocabulary development, and vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(4) Research consistently shows that a strong foundation in the native language of an ELL facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English.

(5) For newcomers in secondary schooling, the challenge then is not only learning English, but learning in English. ELLs are challenged in working with linguistic, cognitive, and academic development in all of their coursework and in a new language. Some newcomers exhibit additional first language and/or academic needs due to their previous educational experiences that may include interrupted and/or limited schooling. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English, especially for students who are newcomers and at beginning levels of English language proficiency. Their academic success depends on their ability to use academic language.

(6) Second language acquisition is a complex process that even under optimal conditions takes a long time (Collier, 1997). It is important to understand that limited knowledge of English structure and vocabulary is neither related to the students' intellectual capabilities nor their ability to use higher-order thinking skills. The development of receptive (listening/reading) and expressive (speaking/writing) skills in second language learners may be at different stages. In some instances, second language learners undergo silent periods of varying durations when they first begin to learn a new language. Students often understand more than they can produce and may repeat words in sentences that they do not entirely understand. Second language learners may also draw upon the resources of their language and culture as they acquire a new language and culture.

(7) In order for ELLs to be successful, they must acquire both social and academic language proficiency in English. Social language proficiency in English consists of the English needed for daily social interactions. Academic language proficiency consists of the English needed to think critically, understand and learn new concepts, process complex academic material, and interact and communicate in English academic settings.

(8) Academic language is a major factor in academic success. Academic language and grammatical structures are used across all subject areas and is specific to the content area, such as language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. This must also be provided in a manner that is linguistically accommodated (contextualized, communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.

(9) ELLs require focused, targeted, and systematic second language acquisition to provide them with the foundation of English language vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and English mechanics necessary to support content-based instruction and accelerated learning of English. Literacy development across the content areas is essential in building academic skills in a second language and can accelerate the learning of both English language skills and higher-order thinking skills.

(10) ELL students are at different stages of language acquisition. Proficiency levels are not grade specific: Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced, and Advanced High. The ELL student may exhibit different proficiency levels within the four language components: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. A student may exhibit oral skills at the advanced level, reading skills at the intermediate level, and writing skills at the beginning level. Understanding the level of English language proficiency of the student is critical in order for the student to have access to the curriculum. The proficiency level of the student determines the accommodations in language that must be made (e.g., adapted text appropriate for student proficiency level; translations) as well as, determines additional scaffolds (e.g., pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus) in order to learn the academic content. Any combination of the language components is possible and is affected by opportunities for interaction in and outside of school. For further guidance in second language acquisition, refer to the English language proficiency standards (ELPS) described in §74.4 of this title.

(A) Beginning: Students associate utterances with meaning as they make inferences based on actions, visuals, text, tone of voice, and inflections. Receptive language with some comprehension is acquired earlier than oral production. Beginning students produce spoken English with increasing accuracy and fluency to convey appropriate meaning. They read English using graphophonic cues, syntax, visuals, the context of the text, and their prior knowledge of language and structure of text.

(B) Intermediate: Students use the listening process to improve comprehension and oral skills in English. Through listening and speaking in meaningful interactions, they clarify, distinguish, and evaluate ideas and responses in a variety of situations. Intermediate students participate successfully in academic, social, and work contexts in English using the process of speaking to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Intermediate students read English using and applying developmental vocabulary to increase comprehension and produce written text to address a variety of audiences and purposes.

(C) Advanced: Students, through developmental listening skills, actively expand their vocabulary to evaluate and analyze spoken English for a variety of situations and purposes. These students participate in a variety of situations using spoken English to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Advanced students continually develop reading skills for increasing reading proficiency in content area texts for a variety of purposes and generate written text for different audiences in a variety of modes to convey appropriate meaning according to their level of proficiency.

(D) Advanced High: Students' reading, speaking, and writing abilities are comparable to those of their native English speaking peers. They understand grade appropriate English as it is used in academic and social settings. These students use language skills on their grade level in the academic subject areas with minimal interruptions and they use abstract and content based vocabulary effectively. Advanced High students continually use the English language to build additional foundational reading skills such as fluency and prosody as well as higher-order comprehension skills. These students have a strong command of English language structures necessary to address writing at appropriate grade levels.

(11) Students enrolled in ESOL II continue to increase and refine their communication skills. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis. Students edit their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English and, with increasing accuracy, produce final, error-free drafts. In English II, students practice all forms of writing. An emphasis is placed on organizing logical arguments with clearly expressed related definitions, thesis, and evidence. Students write to persuade and to report and describe. English II students read extensively in multiple genres from world literature such as reading selected stories, dramas, novels, and poetry originally written in English or translated to English from oriental, classical Greek, European, African, South American, and North American cultures. Students learn literary forms and terms associated with selections being read. Students interpret the possible influences of the historical context on a literary work.

(12) The knowledge and skills and/or student expectations that are applicable specifically to ELLs are indicated in §74.4 of this title as well as in subsection (b) of this section.

(13) To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations in English II as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(14) To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A) determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B) analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C) infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships;

(D) show the relationship between the origins and meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English and historical events or developments (e.g., glasnost, avant-garde, coup d'état); and

(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) compare and contrast differences in similar themes expressed in different time periods;

(B) analyze archetypes (e.g., journey of a hero, tragic flaw) in mythic, traditional and classical literature; and

(C) relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the structure or prosody (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme) and graphic elements (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position) in poetry.

(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how archetypes and motifs in drama affect the plot of plays.

(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole in a variety of works of fiction;

(B) analyze differences in the characters' moral dilemmas in works of fiction across different countries or cultures;

(C) evaluate the connection between forms of narration (e.g., unreliable, omniscient) and tone in works of fiction; and

(D) demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on 20th century world literature.

(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the role of syntax and diction and the effect of voice, tone, and imagery on a speech, literary essay, or other forms of literary nonfiction.

(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the function of symbolism, allegory, and allusions in literary works.

(8) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the controlling idea and specific purpose of a passage and the textual elements that support and elaborate it, including both the most important details and the less important details.

(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A) summarize text and distinguish between a summary and a critique and identify non-essential information in a summary and unsubstantiated opinions in a critique;

(B) distinguish among different kinds of evidence (e.g., logical, empirical, anecdotal) used to support conclusions and arguments in texts;

(C) make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A) explain shifts in perspective in arguments about the same topic and evaluate the accuracy of the evidence used to support the different viewpoints within those arguments; and

(B) analyze contemporary political debates for such rhetorical and logical fallacies as appeals to commonly held opinions, false dilemmas, appeals to pity, and personal attacks.

(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate text for the clarity of its graphics and its visual appeal; and

(B) synthesize information from multiple graphical sources to draw conclusions about the ideas presented (e.g., maps, charts, schematics).

(12) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts;

(B) analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C) examine how individual perception or bias in coverage of the same event influences the audience; and

(D) evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B) structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C) revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A) write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone;

(B) write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C) write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i) effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii) rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii) a thesis or controlling idea;

(iv) an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context;

(v) relevant evidence and well-chosen details; and

(vi) distinctions about the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas that support the thesis statement;

(B) write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i) organized and accurately conveyed information;

(ii) reader-friendly formatting techniques; and

(iii) anticipation of readers' questions;

(C) write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i) extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii) addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii) analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic and rhetorical devices; and

(D) produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A) a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B) consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C) counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D) an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(E) an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas; and

(F) a range of appropriate appeals (e.g., descriptions, anecdotes, case studies, analogies, illustrations).

(17) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i) more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii) restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii) reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B) identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C) use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A) use conventions of capitalization; and

(B) use correct punctuation marks including:

(i) comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions;

(ii) quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony; and

(iii) dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B) formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A) follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B) organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C) paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B) evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A) marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B) provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C) uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D) uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E) uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A) listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C) evaluate how the style and structure of a speech support or undermine its purpose or meaning.

(25) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to advance a coherent argument that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

(27) Second language acquisition/learning strategies. The ESOL II student uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his/her own learning processes in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A) use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English;

(B) monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources;

(C) use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary;

(D) speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known);

(E) internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment;

(F) use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process;

(G) demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(H) develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations; and

(I) make connections across content areas and use and reuse language and concepts in different ways.

(28) Second language acquisition/listening. The ESOL II student listens to a variety of speakers, including teachers, peers, and electronic media, to gain an increasing level of comprehension and appreciation for newly acquired language in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A) distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease;

(B) recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters;

(C) learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions;

(D) monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed;

(E) use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language;

(F) listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(G) understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar;

(H) understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(I) demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs;

(J) understand basic structures, expressions, and vocabulary such as school environment, greetings, questions, and directions;

(K) analyze and evaluate spoken discourse for appropriateness of purpose with a variety of audiences such as formal, consultative, casual, and intimate language registers; and

(L) infer meaning by making associations of utterances with actions, visuals, and the context of the situation.

(29) Second language acquisition/speaking. The ESOL II student speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using developmental vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A) practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible;

(B) expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, objects, events, and basic concepts such as numbers, days of the week, food, occupations, and time by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication;

(C) speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired;

(D) speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency;

(E) share information in cooperative learning interactions;

(F) ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts such as directions and address as well as name, age, and nationality, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments;

(G) express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics;

(H) narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired;

(I) adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes;

(J) respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(K) share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication and to foster respect for others; and

(L) describe the immediate surroundings such as classroom, school, and home.

(30) Second language acquisition/reading. The ESOL II student reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A) learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words;

(B) recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom;

(C) develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials;

(D) use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pre-taught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text;

(E) read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned;

(F) use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language;

(G) demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs;

(H) read silently with increasing ease for longer periods;

(I) demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs;

(J) demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs;

(K) demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs;

(L) read authentic literature and use kinesthetic visual support to develop vocabulary, structures, and build background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly-challenging language;

(M) use verbal cueing strategies such as pauses and exaggerated intonation for key words and non-verbal cueing strategies such as facial expressions and gestures to enhance the reading experience; and

(N) retell, role-play, and/or visually illustrate the order of events.

(31) Second language acquisition/writing. The ESOL II student writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A) learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English;

(B) write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary;

(C) spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired;

(D) edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired;

(E) employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations such as:

(i) using correct verbs, tenses, auxiliaries, and pronouns/antecedents;

(ii) using nominative, objective, and possessive case (apostrophe s) correctly;

(iii) demonstrating knowledge of parts of speech; and

(iv) using negatives and contractions correctly;

(F) write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired;

(G) narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired;

(H) use basic capitalization and punctuation correctly such as capitalizing names and first letters in sentences and using periods, question marks, and exclamation points;

(I) use graphic organizers as pre-writing activity to demonstrate prior knowledge, to add new information, and to prepare to write;

(J) write with more proficient use of orthographic patterns such as digraphs and consonant blends with the initial s- and rules such as "qu" together, consonant doubling, dropping final "e," and changing "y" to "i"; and

(K) develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into sentences and paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text.